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Abstract Freshwater ponds

Abstract Freshwater ponds allow minimal plant and aquatic animal life as compared to salt water in the sea. They follow different environmental conditions that make it conducive for specific species to co-exist in. The study involves the study of two ponds within the San Joaquin Marsh Reserved according to their physical conditions such as nitrate and phosphate content. A higher value content such as in pond seven depicts a less suitable viability for animals to reside in the water.

Pond nine shows an abundance of plants which circle the pond and a few living aquatic animals that are conducive for reproduction as well. The little or no existence of nitrite within the area makes it less-harmful for living animals and things. Introduction One aspect of studying the ecology is the study of ponds, a fresh water environment which occupy a minute percent of the total amount of body of waters in Earth.

A pond, in contrast to a lake, is relatively smaller and shallower bodies of fresh, standing water in which extensive plant growth and relatively quiet water exist. It may be naturally formed, a remnant of a previously existing lake or may be formed by humans. The study of ponds involves the interaction of living organisms in relation to the environment and the conditions ponds exist in.

Among the physical conditions of a pond are the following: Water movements which are minimal because of the small area it occurs and where water stagnation in the bottom levels is common; temperature wherein there is an indistinguishable temperature with its surrounding air and variations are not as extremes; light in the shallow depths of ponds allow plants and phytoplanktons occupy the entire bottom; turbidity or the condition that water contains suspended material such as silt or clay particles, small dead organisms and small living plants and animals.

Depending on their local conditions, turbidity varies greatly in different ponds and changes may occur rapidly due to precipitation. More importantly, oxygen content exist in ponds allow a small number of aquatic animals to live under its conditions. Oxygen content may vary according to the local conditions and may increase or decrease depending on the time of day. Ponds, in response to its physical conditions, maintain living things such as plants and few aquatic animals. Plants arrange themselves in zones more or less parallel to the shore line which act as marginal zones between the floating plants and the submerged plants.

A great diversity of insects are abundant in fresh water environment along with protozoas, crustaceans, amphibians and snails. Fish exist in minor densities compared to other living things because most species are benthic or bottom dwellers. Method The pond chosen for this observational study a portion of the San Joaquin Freshwater Marsh Reserve located in a river-cut channel at the head of Newport Bay. Its channels are confined by earthen dikes. The marsh is relatively a ten-minute walk from UC Irvine, California. Specifically, ponds seven and nine will be used for comparative purposes.

Aspects of the ponds will be compared accordingly using the following tests: the low range test; Nitrate Nitrogen test; and DO and Salinity tests. Pond seven was tested on the first day while pond nine was observed on the second day. A low range test is used to obtain the amount of phosphate the fresh water contains. With the use of two sterile tubes, a color comparator and one Phosver Phosphate Reagent Powder Pillow, a comparison of colors is done between a sample tube filled to the top with water from the clear portion of the pond and the tube filled to .

20 ml top line mixed with Phosver Phosphate Reagent Powder Pillow. After eight minutes to ten minutes, a full color development will be noticeable showing a blue-violet colored evidence of phosphate. The color comparator is then tilted in such a way that the top of the tube is pointed towards the light source and the observations can be made through the openings of the comparator. The color disc is then rotated until the color matches in the two opening. The comparator will produce its scale; which should be divided into 50 to obtain the mg/L phosphate.

In the Nitrate Nitrogen test, water is filled into the tube and a stopper is placed prior to shaking then emptied in order to repeat the procedure. The sample is then mixed with one NitraVer five Nitrite Reageant Powder Pillow; shaken for three minutes after placing a stopper; letting it sit still for about 30 seconds before adding the NitraVer 3 Nitrate Reageant Powder Pillow into the solution and shaken for 30 seconds. An apparent change of color to red will depict the presence of nitrite.

With the use of a color comparator, tubes are tilted towards the light source and rotated to obtain a color match. Its results are multiplied by 4. 4. YSI 55 DO Meter, YSI Salinity Meter and Ex Stik is used to obtain the DO content, salinity of the pond. Readings is obtained by simply turning on the tools as they can calibrate by itself. Results Presented in table one are the results of tests done on both ponds seven and nine. The table reflects data content of all physical conditions of freshwater viable for biological existence of living things.

It is noticeable that pond seven contains a higher content in all aspects, excluding temperature, as compared to pond nine with a relative difference of almost one-half. During the color comparison, there were signs of red color which indicate very low or no nitrite content in the tested areas. Table 1: Table of Test Results Pond 7 Pond 9 Temperature Surface 28. 9 24. 2 Bottom 24. 8 22. 8 DO (in mg/L) % Saturation % Saturation Surface 17 180-181 5. 77 75 Bottom 23. 2 90. 2 4. 91 68. 3 Salinity- parts per thousands 7. 01 3. 6 Conductance in uS 15 6. 6 Orthophosphate (in mg/l) 0.

8 0. 44 Nitrate (in mg/l) 0 0 In pond seven, it is observed that there living things that exist were usually insects that rest on or fly around the water rather than inside. Some of the insects that were seen were coustal bull, California Bull rush in the middle, a white bug that jumps, snails and dragon flies. Meanwhile in pond nine, there were fishes and baby mallards existing below the water on top of the surface insects that were seen in pond seven such as California Bulrush, yellow snowei, and costal bull rush. Figure 1: Drawings of Ponds (PLEASE INSERT PICTURES HERE!

? ) Conclusions: Excluding temperature and DO content, values obtained in pond seven of the marsh were almost twice as much compared to values in pond nine. Difference in temperature between the two may be due to the fact that the test were done on different days and at different times of the day. However, it is apparent that it is cooler at the bottom of the pond due to the light that passes through the water. Given these data, temperature differences are not as big in pond nine compared to the other which could allow a better environment for aquatic animals in the former.

DO content between the two are quite different as well. Pond 9 contained less and therefore it’s saturation percentage is lesser as well. And likewise, its content is less at the bottom area than the surface of pond nine. However, in pond seven, its content in the bottom increases by as much as one-third of the DO content in the surface. Oddly, saturation in the surface is greater than at the bottom. The figure shown above, by observation, depicts better living conditions for aquatic animals as well as plants in pond nine. This may be due to its salinity content, its conductance and lack of nitrite.

The lesser each of these elements are present in the environment, the more conducive for life the pond is. In pond seven, although still viable for living condition, only allows surface insects to exist within the area. The little or no existence of nitrate or the waste products of living organisms depicts that there are only very little forms present in both ponds (Reid, 200). These nitrite is released into the air or is used up by algae present within the area. Bibliography: Reid, G. K 2001. Pond Life, A Golden Guide. Western Publishing Company.

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