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African Americans living

How do the racist policies and the attitudes of social Darwinism affect the lives of the African American community and immigrants during the late 1800s and early 1900s? How do African Americans and immigrants respond to the attitudes and conditions of the period? ABSTRACT: The highest percentage of African Americans living in the United States is either immigrants or either descendants of former slaves. For along time ever since the slave trade African Americans have been the victims of racist policies.

In analyzing this paper, I will look at some of the policies that have affected African Americans. In addition to this, I will look at some of the responses that have ensued. Social Darwinism: Social Darwinism is a notion that stipulates that Darwin’s theory can and is extended for analysis in the social realm. In this case, it is assumed that competitions between organizations, nations, or individuals lead to social evolution in inherently human societies. There are many claims that social Darwinism has been influential in spreading racism.

Through this perspective, the idea has been claimed to explain the differences between different human cultures. INTRODUCTION: Racism is a character trait that is evident on a global scale. It is not only directed at the victims on color basis but it is also based on other issues like religion. Efforts to stop t5he spread of racism have always been exercised but they have not been as effective as is required. ANALYSIS: African Americans have faced many ills during their long stay in the United States. African Americans have faced hostility from other ethnic groups ever since the days of slavery up to date.

Although in recent days the hostility is not widely spread it is still evident and ripe deep inside the American society. Due to this prejudice, African Americans were denied their liberty, the chance to pursue their own happiness and even denied life in the following ways. Firstly, African slaves were not recognized as humans but as property of the slave owners. In addition, slaves were denied the right of freedom of worship and association. African slaves once shipped into the United States, they were separated from their wife’s and children.

Furthermore, slaves who were extremely emaciated on arrival in the ‘land of opportunities’, were usually left to die due to the fact that they had no economic value to the slave lords. In this respect, African Americans have faced all kinds of prejudice, which are cognitive prejudice, co native prejudice and affective prejudice. In this respect, African Americans have been discriminated against in the electoral process, educational sector, public transportation, legal system as well as many other fields.

African Americans have found themselves segregated against when it comes to the family unit where for a long time many other ethnic communities in the United States sometimes considered inter-marriages to African Americans a crime and sometimes they would even kill their relatives if they were found out to be involved with African Americans. Besides this, African Americans have faced vigilante violence especially in the form of lynching during the Jim Crow era.

The Jim Crow era is a period of time when the Jim Crow laws were in existence. These laws constitutionally allowed for racial segregation against blacks. They were in existence until 1964 when they were abolished, after the passing of the civil rights act of 1964, especially due to black movements mainly led by martin Luther king. There are many reasons why African Americans have been discriminated against, but the main reason why they have been discriminated against is due to the color of their skin.

The black skin of African Americans is considered by many to be inferior to other skin colors and thus they do not see the reason why a black person should be more prosperous than they do. Apart from this, there are other people who hold the cognitive prejudice that Africans and in extension, African Americans were not created but actually evolved. This belief makes them view African Americans as resembling apes and thus they belief these people should be living in zoos. Institutional racism or discrimination is not foreign to American culture.

African Americans have been on the receiving end and they have been highly affected by it. On this perspective, many African Americans have faced many occupational and educational disadvantages due to ingrained stereotypical views that are still deeply rooted in the American society like blacks are inherently criminals. This has denied many African Americans many privileges enjoyed by other races like a good education, the best occupations as well as a just legal structure. Everyone has a right to belong to a certain culture.

Although I would like to associate more with the African American culture, I will have to recognize the fact that the American society is multiracial and thus I have to equally relate not only to the African American culture but I also have to identify with the general American culture. There have been issues especially from black movements and influential personalities like martin Luther king. In this respect, many organizations over the years have moved from their state and local associations to address these issues.

Discriminative policies and laws like the Jim Crow laws have been in existence in American culture for a very long time. In addition, the issues of social Darwinism were deeply entrenched in not only the private but also the public sectors. In addition, the moral character of black women was highly insulted. CONCLUSION: Although instances of rape have been highly evident in the American culture, slowly by slowly they are becoming fewer. In addition, after the scraping of the Jim Crow laws in the 1960s due to earlier efforts of people like martin Luther king the status of blacks in American culture is slowly returning.

ESSAY 2 Describe the changes in American foreign policy in the late 1800s and early 1900s and the way that policy evolves. Use the Spanish American War, Latin America and World War I to illustrate your answer. ABSTRACT: American foreign policy has changed many times over the years. Ever since the time of the American war of independence from Great Britain the American foreign policy has been influenced by many factors. Different administrations have successfully changed the American foreign policy for the purposes of protecting the sovereignty as well as the liberties of American citizens.

This paper attempts to look at some of the different American policies, in this analysis I will look more specifically the foreign policies especially in times of war like the First World War. In the final stages, I will take a look at the current form of the American foreign policy under president bush’s administration. FOREIGN POLICY: A foreign policy is a set of goals and guidelines on how a certain country will interact with other countries or actors in the international community. In many countries, the foreign policy is usually, a docket reserved for the president or the prime minister.

In the United States, the president is the chief drafter of the foreign policy through the secretary of states office. INTRODUCTION: America is the world’s largest economic power as well as the sole military super-power. This makes the foreign policy of the United States a very influential policy in global politics. ANALYSIS: The officially stated goals of the foreign policy of the United States, as mentioned in the Foreign Policy Agenda of the U. S. Department of State, are “to create a more secure, democratic, and prosperous world for the benefit of the American people and the international community.

” In addition, the United States House Committee on Foreign Affairs states as some of its jurisdictional goals: “export controls, including nonproliferation of nuclear technology and nuclear hardware; measures to foster commercial intercourse with foreign nations and to safeguard American business abroad; International commodity agreements; international education; and protection of American citizens abroad and expatriation. ” . HISTORY OF AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY America’s foreign policy has been changing since independence in 1776.

There are times when it was inclined to isolationism, at other times selective engagement and others containment. The foreign policy is also widely associated with the military. In the case of the United States, the president is the chief negotiator of the foreign policy through the ministry of foreign affairs headed by the secretary of state, who is the primary conductor of state-to-state diplomacy. In the united states the President is also Commander in Chief of the military, and as such has broad authority over the armed forces once they are deployed whether for domestic or for the purposes of the international community.

Because the president has veto powers within the country, the executive has been able to implement foreign policy decisions at the expense of the legislature. Some of the recent examples of this are the governments’ decision to wage war in Afghanistan and Iraq. In this regard, the executive has also widely kept the legislature in the dark concerning the CIA and us military operations overseas especially on the issue of their humanitarian records and treatment of terrorist suspects in CIA detention camps overseas.

The United States is one of the two largest democracies in the world the other being India. As thus, the United States government should have given the legislature the privilege of being a major partner in formulating the foreign policy. Instead the executive has gone ahead to even defy the doctrines of the United Nations to which it is a signatory. In so doing the public has been kept in the dark on issues that even though they do not affect them directly they are still of an important nature.

American foreign policy has been the subject of much debate and criticism both domestically and abroad. Charges of negative influence have been levied even in countries traditionally considered allies of the United States. This has been mainly so since the foreign policy is designed in a way that it is only good if and only if the recipient country is willing to play by U. S terms if not so then everything changes. The Spanish-American war of 1898nwas one of the reasons for the expansion of America’s foreign policy to a global or at the time to a European scales.

It was as a result of America trying to make Spain to accept Cuban independence. This was at a time when the United States as an independent country was exercising an expansionist foreign policy. The treaty of Paris that effectively ended the war gave the United States the control of some of the Spanish colonies of Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines. Much of the American military campaigns in Latin America have been either in protection of regimes or the desire to erect strategic military basis.

These bases are usually strategically located for the main purpose of undertaking pre-emptive strikes on potential threats. In addition, it is a form of gunboat diplomacy a tactic that the United States foreign policy seriously takes into account. Surprisingly these campaigns have always had an economic bearing in their nature. This is because in many times these campaigns have been in support of guerrilla movements that promise the American government access to their markets once they overthrow the current regimes.

CONCLUSION: The American foreign policy can be seen as an extension of the executive this is because many policy decisions even if they are discussed by the congress the executive implements them to its own terms. This has caused many negative criticisms from both domestically and internationally since even when an issue is approved by the congress the executive has had a tendency of over implementing the policies turning good intentions into a bad policy implementation.

REFERENCES:

Bailyn, Bernard (1967), the Ideological Origins of the American Revolution, Harvard University Press, Harvard. George B. Tindall (1984), America: a narrative history. New York: Norton. James M. Scott (1998) After the End – CL: Making U. S. Foreign Policy in the Post-cold War World, Duke University Press. John Hope Franklin, Alfred Moss (2001), From Slavery to Freedom. A History of African Americans. New York: McGraw-Hill publishers.

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