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The article was taken from the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, and it can be said that this is a scholarly journal. 2. The authors include G. A. Bonanno, J. G. Noll, P. K. Trickett, D. Keltner, F. W. Putnam, J. LeJeune, and C. Anderson. Bonnano belongs to the faculty of Columbia University in the Department of Counseling and Clinical Psychology. Keltner and Anderson belongs to the Department of Psychology in University of California, Berkeley. Noll and Trickett are member of the faculty in University of Southern California in the School of Social Work.

On the other hand, Putnam is a staff at the Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, while LeJeune belongs to the Department of Psychology, The Catholic University of America. 3. It was evident that the authors supported several hypotheses regarding the moral nature of emotion, as well as the smiling behavior. 4. The major assumptions of the authors that there is a relationship between the willingness of people who experienced childhood sexual abuse to disclose such information and their non-verbal expressions of emotions in the face, are reasonable and were clearly supported by evidences from different literature reviews.

5. The article was organized logically; however, one section, Limitations of the Evidence, was placed after the methodology and results. This should have been placed before the discussion of the procedure so that readers will have an idea on the things that the study will not cover, as well as the extent of its scope. 6. The main points were clearly presented through proper introduction and review of other evidences to support their points, which were divided by sections. INTRODUCTION 7.

The authors performed the study because they are aware of the difficulty of victims of childhood sexual abuse to disclose information regarding their past experiences. They also believe that there is direct relationship between the victims’ facial expressions and their willingness to disclose information regarding the abuse that they received. 8. The problem is significant enough to warrant a journal article because it is important to find ways on how to make the sharing of information of victims of childhood sexual abuse easier for them. 9. The authors presented different literatures to support their arguments.

These were helpful because they were able to expand more on the subject and correlate it to the issue at hand. The literature was used to put the problem in context. The evidences that the authors gathered supported the problems that the authors were trying to tackle. 10. The research was driven by a theory regarding the moral nature of emotion, as well as the smiling behavior. 11. It is indicated that although there have been evidence regarding verbal disclosure of childhood sexual abuse, little is known about nonverbal disclosure, which makes it hard to demonstrate comparison with other researches.

12. There is no definite statement of the research questions or hypotheses. However, it can be seen from the abstract of the paper that the authors tried to study “voluntary disclosure–nondisclosure of CSA in relation to nonverbal expressions of emotion in the face. ” METHODS 13. The design of the research provides a rare opportunity to examine hypotheses about the relationship of nonverbal facial behavior to the voluntary disclosure of CSA and to aspects of previous CSA experiences. The design was able to address the hypotheses that the authors indicated in the study.

It was more on qualitative research. 14. The main variables of the study included facial expression and emotions while they were being interviewed and relating their experiences. 15. There was no indication as to the research’s reliability and validity of the results. 16. The authors were able to code the interviews by using Emotion Facial Action Coding System to strengthen the internal validity of the study. 17. The methods to collect the data were described clearly enough to allow for replication in the future. SAMPLE 18.

Participants were part of an ongoing longitudinal study of the long-term effects of CSA that began in 1987. The study had 163 participants that was large enough to address the hypotheses and research questions. 19. The demographics of the participants were not as detailed as they should be. Their ages were given in average and their races were given in percentages. There were no biases in the sample and the participants reflected the population from where it was drawn. RESULTS 20. The researchers used frequency, duration, and intensity to analyze the collected data. 21.

The results were clearly stated. The researchers were able to answer their hypotheses and correlate the results to the problem. 22. The results of the study have clinical meaning because this would change how psychologists would deal with victims of childhood sexual abuse. DISCUSSION 23. The authors were able to demonstrate proper relationship between facial expression and willingness to disclose such information through the collected data and through their literature review. 24. The conclusions showed the results that the researchers were able to obtain through the study. 25.

There was discussion of the limitations of their study and the researchers were able to stay within the boundaries that they have indicated. 26. Personally, I would recommend publication of the report because it proved to be significant in the field of psychology. It will be published as is because I find the article clear with a logical flow that is not confusing to the readers. Second Article: 1. The article came from the Social Work Research journal. 2. The authors were Michael A. Lindsey, who is an assistant professor at the School of Social Work in the University of Maryland; Dorothy C.

Browne, a professor of social work and the director of Institute of Public Health in the North Carolina A&T State University; Richard Thompson, the director of research for the Juvenile Protective Association; Kristin M. Hawley, an assistant professor of Psychological Sciences in the University of Missouri; J. Christopher Graham, a research scientist for the School of Social Work in University of Washington; Cindy Weisbart, an assistant professor of medicine in University of Maryland; Donna Harrington, a professor for the School of Social Work in University of Maryland; and Jonathan B.

Kotch, a professor for the School of Public Health in the University of Carolina. 3. The authors supported the fact that African American children are those most likely to receive maltreatment. This was a contributing factor from which the authors made their decision to limit their study to African American children only. 4. The major assumptions of the authors were reasonable because there have been several instances in which African American children have been reported to receive abuse and maltreatment by their caregivers. 5. The article was organized logically with clear flow of thoughts and ideas.

6. The main points were clearly presented in each section with the authors using simple yet effective language to convey their ideas and arguments. Introduction 7. The authors examined the combined effects of caregiver mental health, alcohol use, and social network support and satisfaction on child mental health needs among African American caregiver-child dyads at risk of maltreatment. Other factors that influence child mental health problems have been previously examined and the researchers tried to assess the extent of the influence of psychosocial stressors of the caregivers.

8. Any research concerning factors that affect the mental health of children, or of any specific group of people is worth being discussed. Hence, the subject of research in this article warrants a journal article. 9. The researchers have presented that parent’s mental health are factors leading to psychiatric disorders. The researchers rightly assumed that the children whose caregivers display mental health problems are at an increased risk of experiencing mental health problems as well. 10.

Considering the background of the study, the research is more exploratory in nature. 11. The researchers explained that there has been few research performed examining the combined effects of caregiver mental health/alcohol use and the caregiver social network support/satisfaction to children mental health. The research is unique in that it examined the effects to children who have been maltreated or are at risk of maltreatment. The research is also limited to African American children and caregivers. 12.

The researchers hypothesized that African American caregivers whose capacity to parent is challenged by their own mental health problems and that those who have low perceived social support and neighborhood satisfaction will have children with elevated internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems. Methods 13. The research was qualitative in that the participants were interviewed and data were collected from these interviews. 14. The researchers used the caregivers’ mental health and the social network support that the caregivers receive or the satisfaction the get as the independent variables.

The child mental health need was compared to the measures of the independent variables. Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), including a measure of Global Severity Index (GSI)–the most sensitive indicator of the respondent’s distress level and combines information about the number of symptoms and the intensity of the distress–was administered to the caregivers of children aged eight. The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) Scale was administered to caregivers of children aged six and the CAGE Questionnaire was administered to caregivers of children aged four.

These test were designed to measure caregiver depressive symptoms. Neighborhood Short Form (NSF) and the Social Provisions Scale were administered to assess the caregiver’s perceptions of the neighborhood quality and to examine the degree to which respondent’s social relationships provide various dimensions of social support. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) was used to asses the child behavior problems. 15. The test-retest reliability for the GSI has been reported 90 percent, the CES-D reliability for the African American subsample has been reported as 89 percent, while the CAGE reliability was at 73 percent.

Reliability of the NSF for the African American subsample was reported at 86 percent while the reliability for the Social Provisions Scale for the African American subsample was at 91 percent. 16. A coordinating center at the University of North Carolina and five independent, prospective longitudinal investigations located in different regions of the United States were used to ensure internal validity of the study. 17. The methods that were used were clearly indicated and can be easily replicated in the future. Sample 18.

Data for this study come from children and their caregivers participating in the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). The sample analyzed here was restricted to all LONGSCAN children who were African American, had completed age eight interviews, and had a review of their Child Protective Services maltreatment record through the date of their age eight interview. The sample was large enough to support the authors’ hypotheses and arguments. 19. The demographics of the participants were already limited and did not need to be detailed.

However, it is suffice to say that it was reflective of population from which it was drawn. There were no obvious biases that were determined in the sample that the authors used. Results 20. The Child Behavior Checklist was used to analyze the date collected from the sample. 21. The results were clearly organized with the authors describing the results and dividing them into sections including Descriptive Statistics and Bivariate Correlations between Predictors and Child Mental Health Need. 22. I believe that the results of the study have clinical meaning because it discusses child abuse from caregivers, which should be stopped and prevented.

Discussion 23. The authors discussed that their findings were not consistent to past researches and evidences. They were able to indicate that some of their findings were unexpected. 24. It can be seen that the conclusions were taken from the results of the study. 25. The authors discussed the limitations of their study through a separate section and it can be seen that they were able to stay within the scope of their study. 26. I would be recommending this article to be published because of the importance of the issue to the public. It is essential that child abuse be prevented and the public should be made aware of

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