: Behavioral Psychology
Behavioral psychology is concerned with the study and modification of observable behavior that is carried out by means of systematic population and environmental factors. Behavior therapy is used to treat some psychological problems like depression, anxiety disorders and phobias (Halevy, 2004). There are some roots that states that psychological matters can be studied scientifically. This is done by just observing some behaviors without internal mental state discussions. Internal states have been accepted as part of casual chain of behaviors.
In relation to utopian literature, the mental discussion of the society is considered ideally perfect society with philosophical kings (Plato, 370B. C). In the history of the behavior was pioneered by B. F skinner, O. Lindsley and Harry C. Solomon. Joseph Wolpe and Hans Eysenck are other pioneers. All these had their own ways of viewing behavior problems that was different from the perspective of the directions of utopian literature. Eysenck viewed it as interplay between personality characteristics, the environment and the behavior.
Skinner on the other hand took it as an operant conditioning focus. This created a functional approach to assessment and interventions which were focused on the contingency management. They are things like token, economy and behavioral activation. Thomas Moore argues in the 16th century during the era of protestant reformation, the time during which all things seemed possible that the ruling class should be equipped with education to lead the rest and no one should claim ownership to property to solve the problem of unequal distribution of resources of the time.
This is the period which the ruling class often referred to as the intelligentsia uses the severe penal code to punish the law breakers and more particularly this group had abundant resources participated less in productive labor and were appropriated enough land for sheep grazing. The classical conditioning was first developed by Ivan Pavlov where operant conditioning was developed by B. F. Skinner. For example in 1890 Pavlov carried an observation of dogs salivating when being fed. He noticed that dogs begin to salivate when the person who feeds them appears.
All animals become excited when they hear the sounds that indicate that they almost being fed. Pavlov took a careful observation and measured a part of the process. He coupled the tone and the sound in feeding his dogs in that the tone came several times before and during feeding the dogs. He realized that the dogs salivated to the tone. From this he learnt that tone goes along with food and with saliva response. This clearly shows that in classical conditioning a neutral stimulus gets associated with an involuntary response.
This principle is seen in the United States of America in the proposition of the perfect utopia created in the 19th century, where people were manipulated to form such utopian communities by the promise of the perfect place. Skinner then came up with operant conditioning which indicates that this kind of learning is not the result stimulus-response learning (Nickel, 2003). According to skinner, operant conditioning was between the operant response and the one who is reinforcing. This is done with a discriminative stimulus serving that signals when the association is acted upon.
The voluntary actions involved in operant conditioning include lifting a latch, following a maze or aiming or firing a weapon. Skinner in the mid 20th century (around 1948) also talks about topian literature in his works where he sees a society with maximum cooperation and the ability to sustain this society as the pillars of societal coexistence. There is a suggestion that the engineering of behavior complimented with the soft sciences can be used to make better social living. But there exists confusion between the two conditioning about their differences and if some techniques of behavioral psychology have any common scientific base.
A direct product of research from operant conditioning is known as contingency management program. These programs have become successful in that they produce effects even in adult who suffer from schizopherenia. The systematic desensitization and exposure, band receptive prevention emerge from respondent conditioning. They have also received considerable research. Social skills training educate client skills in knowing how to access rein forcers and then lessen life punishments. This is done in the respect to operant conditioning.
There are several problems that the behavioral psychology has created functional analysis on. Some of them include intimacy in couple relationships, forgiveness in couples, chronic, stress, anxiety and obesity. It is also created to client resistance. Some of other problems are like the grades in school and wages at work which are just tokens in token economy. It is important to understand the daily human behavior. The purist position is applied to human even though humans are capable of learning through observational learning.
Humans are also known to oppose and negate blatant attempts of manipulating them on something they are not willing to do. But sometimes behaviorism reigns supreme for example in emergency situations. The people in power as from the 20th century for example have always used the utopian principles to incorporate use of the behavioral concepts of rewards. They also use punishments and repetitive training that helps in shaping and controlling humans. In ancient times, military leaders for example used to subject their troops to forms of conditioning when intending to instill warlike responses.
The repetitive played a major role in attempting to condition firing. According to behavioral terms, when preparing as soldier the enemy acts as the stimulus. The systematic military training of military men was considered vital in achieving of the utopian societies and even in today life where societies like for example the superpower countries like the United States of America spends huge sums of financial investment on this kind of service to achieve the perfect superpower state where no other can shake its position in the world.
The era of slave trade in the 18th century who were shipped west from Africa in order to satisfy the needs of the west in terms of development and industrialization can be considered utopian because these slaves because these slaves were used to contribute to a perfect America that stands even to the present date. These slaves served and fed some loyal families and contributed to their rich state. These people were conditioned through the tormented processes they underwent to serve their bosses. In some situations the operant conditioning is necessary.
In the case of military still the participants in close combat are literally frightened out of their wits. Combatants stops thinking with the forebrain when the bullets starts flying. The though processes goes to the midbrain which is a very primitive part of the mind. It has no difference with that of a dog or a rat. This clearly shows that the behavior is influenced by the operant conditioning. The dominance of the midbrain processing is common to every healthy member of every species. Species that are the same do not fight to death but they do it to a different species.
In the 17th century many writers look at this concept of utopian literature for example Tommaso looks at a perfect ideal island where all people are equal and there is no measure of monetary values except that there has to be a scientific controlled breeding which in this case shou8uld be conditioned. According to Palvanians’ classical condition view point there is reverse-clock work orange process as termed by Dave Grossman (Livingstone, 2007). In this movies clockwork orange, there is injection done to a sociopath that makes him become nausea and then exposed to violent movies.
He narrates all movies to nausea and this helps him out of sociopathy. In real life many children are exposed to repetitions of media violence where they learn to associate themselves with their favorites like candy, soda and their girlfriends perfume as they see on the media. They then seat, laugh and applaud at vivid depictions of human death and their suffering. Children from industrialized places participate in several reputations of point and shoot video. They also arcade games that provide the motor skills that are needed to turn the killings into automatic and reflexive response.
This is done without the stimulus discriminators and safeguard discipline. This is viewed at behavioral point. From a psychological view on the other hand, children in the industrialized countries are brutalized and traumatized at their young ages. Violent video games and media violence makes them learn how to kill where they learns to like it. In the 19th century a writer from England by the name of Samuel Butler in his book discusses a western civilization in his book about a world where there is a dominion, lawyers, jury, jails, currency, wealthy and the deprived – and at first view the populace appears fit and satisfied.
This basic form of life is reached at by some form of social conditioning where all the people in the society are thus reaching this end by some form of learning. The society today Today there does not seem to occur a need for psychological manipulation because of the realities offered by the utopian literature does not seem to be realistic enough to the world populate. Instead there is an emphasis on the emerging technologies. There is clinical behavior analysis that includes behavioral activation. This behavioral activation is an important factor in the clinic for it treats depressions (Denhardt, 2008).
In the modern world radical behavioral concepts are used in clinical phenomena that include forgiveness. The clinics now a day are making an identical copy of something. The DNA fragment cells and organisms are duplicated. Clinics also undertake stem cells which renews themselves during mitosis. They are got from adults tissues. There is also existence of robots that are termed as mechanical agent. The fully autonomous machines come into view in twentieth century. This fact of science serves to give the same idea of the utopia as viewed in the literature part of it.
In conclusion behavioral psychology is concerned about the study and modification of observable behavior that is carried out by means of systematic population and environmental factors. Behavior psychology is used to treat some psychological problems like depression, anxiety disorders and phobias. There are some roots that states that psychological matters can be studied scientifically. This is done by just observing some behaviors without internal mental state discussions. Internal states have been accepted as part of casual chain of behaviors.
Later it was discovered that the only way to improve the internal state is through environmental manipulation. There are some founders of behavioral therapy. The classical conditioning was developed by Ivan Pavlov where operant conditioning was developed by B. F. Skinner. Operant conditioning indicates that this kind of learning is not the result stimulus-response learning. In classical conditioning a neutral stimulus gets associated with an involuntary response. Through a variety of psychological and social logical processes, violence in the media has become a violent crime.
When the small children watch violent movies and television they perceive an idea that they live in a violent world. They then find themselves engaging themselves with such activities. With the current technology there is no need for psychological conditioning because science has proved a new way of handling new forms of life that do not require any training to be fully effective like for example the use of stem cells in cloning new life that can be identical to the donor of the individual cell.
Halevy E. E. (2004). Behavioral Psychology. Texas: Routledge. Jowett G. (2006). Behavior Therapy. New York: Chronicle Books. Nickel W. J. (2003). Operant Conditioning. New York: SUNY Press. Livingstone C. J. (2007). Classical Conditioning. California: University Press. Denhardt J. V. (2008). Modern Technology. New York: SAGESample Essay of Edusson.com