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Child Abuse of Adopted Children

Good day to you and thank you for allocating time to read this letter. Child abuse is a serious problem all over the world today and it would be the purpose of this proposal to study a specific branch of child abuse which is child abuse that occurs for adopted children.

Aside from the fact that the abuse of children is an extremely difficult to empathize scenario, it is a problematic area of social welfare because unlike adults, children are not able to immediately identify the abuse and to defend themselves against those who are doing the said act. In fact, the prevailing state of child abuse to adopted children is so large in the country today that welfare workers are already boggled by the number of cases they have to handle.

Furthermore, because of the lack of diagnosing methods in social psychology, and the intrinsic difficulty of identifying child abuse because of the lack of accurate respondents, children who are promised to be cared for by their adopted parents turned out to be abuse patients in the long run it would therefore be our purpose to pass to you a proposal for research on new methods in order to diagnose child abuse and what are the specific steps we may be able to take as social workers and researchers both in the sense of prevention and cure.

Background and Information As we have already mentioned earlier, child abuse is widespread. As of the last data gathered, in the United States alone, 54% of cases recorded under the category of child abuse belong to that of parental neglect, and 20% of the cases belong to physical abuse. In fact, the trend over the years when we look at the research and statistics that have been gathered by various welfare agencies is that more and more cases of child abuse are being observed.

This may be related to poverty, the overall decrease of moral values, or many other aspects that would not anymore be covered in the purpose of our paper and proposal. However, what is essential for us to understand is that child abuse is not only a static event but has long run impacts in the welfare of children, families, and even the nation as a whole with many other second-generation effects that have been pointed out by sociologists (Wilson, Daly, & Weghorst, 2008).

Also, it is an observation by social workers that there is a higher chance and probability of child abuse occurring if the patients that are involved come from families who have adopted them. According to the various research made in the area, the probability of child abuse in such adopted families rise to as much as a 50% chance of occurrence (Groza & Ryan, 2002). This is the reason why recent social work is being focused and developed towards the addressing and pressing issue of child abuse in adopted families.

Although the observations we make may also belong to the general category of child abuse even in a non-adoption environment, the research proposal we are delivering is focused on Child abuse scenarios in adoption cases. The government has already undertaken various past projects on the research of child abuse and its connection to adoption, but the research has already ended in identification and diagnosis, and there are many other following research that have been done in the topic since then (Golden, 2000).

For example, a methodology has already been developed by welfare researchers as to how to diagnose children involved in abuse using nonverbal decoding cues (Bowen & Nowicki, 2007). This research has identified various signals to children and has discovered statistically significant differences in the verbal cues of children experiencing abuse in children who are not experiencing abuse. Also, the diagnosis of the presence of abuse in a family is not constrained only to qualitative and statistically significant work, but it’s also bridging towards the science of medicine.

Research has been made that opthalmologists may be agents in the identification of the presence of child abuse within a family by observing reactions of the cornea and other elements of the optical nerve to trauma, and other violence related injuries (Tongue, 1991). Also, the importance of child abuse to social work has been so large that the data that has been collected over the past decade on Child abuse is now compiled in order to make more accurate decisions in diagnosing such evidences (Tongue, 1991). Recent research is now bordering on diagnosing child abuse and the significant difference of the event to adopted children.

As we have already said earlier, research has reflected that adopted children have a higher probability of child abuse than those who are not adopted, although the numbers for both are still significantly high as we want it to be (Gelles & Harrop, 1991). Research has been made on the statistics and probability of child abuse occurrence in adopted families both in the case of illegal adaption mechanism and in areas where in the child is being taken care of by nongenetic caretakers — like relatives that are far removed and family friends.

Still, there are more research connecting various kinds of child abuse in an adoption scenario that make contributions to the general welfare affect children. Although it may be intuitive to state that child abuse in adopted families results in extremely negative long-term manifestations in a child’s ability, the research also backs this up with many references regarding the long-term effects of child abuse especially if the event was made in adopted family scenario (Bonnet, 1993).

Towards the Accurate Identification of Child Abuse in Adopted Children: Pre-adoption Stage The objective, therefore, the following proposed research is to be able to critically identify the various factors that would contributions to child abuse before a child has been adopted by a proposed couple or individual. The method to do this is by using both qualitative and statistical regression techniques in order to determine the determinants of child abuse and the probability of adopted child abuse for the future.

By achieving this, we could be able to solve the problem even before it arises, and the traditional scenario of prevention being the best cure is reinforced by this objective and this plan of action. Qualitative Identification Although researchers have already dealt upon the topic of how to identify child abuse, the methodology that we are proposing is to remove those elements in the research process that these literature have integrated which have been ready identified as nonsignificant in the identification of child abuse.

For example, in a study made in 1987, various factors have been identified by the authors of the study in identifying factors associated with increased impact of child abuse to children (Conte & Schuerman, 1987). However, since it is already 2009, after reviewing the said article, we have identified that there are factors which have not been considered by the study and is already relevant now. One of the factors we are talking of is the discovery of recent research that since 1987, a large number of the workforce has shifted towards the women population and has significantly decreased the presence of women in the home.

Our study would modify the existing research on factors child-abuse probability by identifying whether or not the decrease of women staying at home increases child abuse and what is the qualitative direction of such an observation. Also, another different factor that exists in the modern world is that there is a high proliferation of day care centers where in parents pass on the responsibility of taking care of their children during the daytime in order to attend the workforce and we would see if this plays a significant role in the presence of child abuse (Finkelhor, Williams, & Burns, 1988).

As an accompaniment to this theory, we also would like to study whether or not there is a higher chance of sending children to daycare if the child in question is an adopted child. This may significantly affect the results in the factors affecting child-abuse in the case of adopted children. Also, our study would try to understand and see the significant difference of the presence of child abuse in adopted children in both the informal and formal market for adoption (Hill, 1977). Quantitative Identification

In order for our research to be more solid both in the theoretical sense and in the conceptual sense, we would also like to conduct quantitative research and identification methods in order to diagnose child abuse in adopted children. Recently, in 2008, a logistic regression analysis was made by researchers in order to make a predictive model of child abuse. This research has identified that adoption factors and statistics play a significant role — mathematically a high regression coefficient — the presence of child abuse (Nalavany, Ryan, Howard, & Smith, 2008).

What is essential in this research is that it considers a pre-adoptive regression model to make a statistical prediction of the probability of abuse in the future using data collected in family service agencies that have access to — and facilitate — the adoption mechanism used in the country. This gives us a solid methodology and framework in order to conduct our own statistical regression analysis where in we already have a framework that adoption does indeed play a large coefficient and progress for to future child abuse.

What we need to do now for our quantitative analysis is to be able to make our own regression line considering the various other variables that may contribute to child abuse in the future given the fact that our respondents are already constant in the adoption variable. To do this, we would be assigning various logistic variables in order to define probability of future abuse together with employment of dummy variables such as age, gender, and other factors that we would study in the future if this research proposal has been granted.

A related research to this is to find the economic incentive driving approach of families to adopt children. In 2006, the child welfare department of New York City conducted a study which defines the economic incentives as well as the economic conditions of families opting for adoption. Preliminary research by the studies showed that income of families who facilitates the adoption as a high correlation to future child abuse occurrences, although the regression of these coefficients are in the opposite direction, meaning that as income increases, there is a lower probability of future violence and child abuse for these adopted children.

Again, we cite the previous background and research of the contribution of having recent day care centers in society as a factor in child abuse for adopted children. Towards the Accurate Identification of Child Abuse in Adopted Children: Post-adoption Stage Another objective of the research and study is to be able to identify the determinants of the presence of child abuse in a present scenario.

Although there are already research and determining factors, there is still a very vague and low success rate for determining the presence of child abuse in adopted families and adopted children, and an even higher mistake rate in the determining of the presence of child abuse even though it is not actually present in a given scenario or family — a diagnosis which could be destructive both to a family and to the adopted children involved, as well as an indefinite waste of resources for the government and agency contributing to the social welfare action. Qualitative Identification

In the qualitative identification of child abuse, especially when we consider diagnosing it in the present, we as researchers must remember that we do not have the luxury of time. Studies have shown that child-abuse, specifically child-abuse for adopted children, is not a one time occurrence. Child abuse occurs continuously with no indefinite timeframe and limit (Daro & McCurdy, n. d. ). Therefore, if we allow ourselves the modification and continuous allocation of the research, we are in an ethical dilemma because while we are conducting the research, the children in question are already continuously experiencing child-abuse.

Therefore, our qualitative identification of child abuse in the present should be able to address only the most significant variables. Only after the welfare work and conclusions have been made should more qualitative identification variables be integrated into future studies in the area. A sample and population which we may be able to use for the qualitative identification of child abuse in adopted families is to look at the child-abuse occurrences for children that are already collected by social workers from their abusive parents or families.

By doing so, we do not run into the ethical danger of misaction Quantitative Identification The methods that we shall be employing in order to determine the presence of child abuse are basically the same in the pre-adopted the approach that we have already identified above. However, we would of course be adjusting our variables and determinants to a timeframe where in individuals have already adopted a child. A study made by adoption quarterly in 2006 has made research already regarding neglect during the middle school years of an adopted child by their families (Tan, 2006).

We hope, in our research, to be able to refine this methodology in order to cover a larger time frame and time period. The way to do this is to have a larger sample set of data so that our regressions may be accurate and have the lowest error term possible in the statistical regression. In a recent psychology review, psychologists have been able to identify that in order for there to be an accurate diagnosis of the presence of child abuse in adopted children, the factors in review should not only be able to identify details and research surrounding the children but also those of the parents and family as well (Spinetta & ER, n.

d. ). Statistical and psychological profiling of the parents allow for the psychologists to be able to see the presence of child abuse with the intersection of the data that have been gathered from the purportedly abuse children with those of the parents. If there is a large correlation between these factors and variables, then researchers may be able to identify the presence of child abuse. In our research, we shall be adapting the same methodology and factoring in to the quantitative identification of child abuse in the present tense by collecting data on this and parents.

However, this early on, we would already like to state that this might seem problematic because of the difficulty of acquiring data — made a date to be qualitative interviews or quantitative data — parents especially those that have a hand to play in child abuse. In order to solve this, our experiment designed in data gathering and interview collecting should keep this in mind and not have specification bias by the respondents by formulating such questions accurately and for them not to be leading to the topic at hand.

As early on as the 1970s, psychologists have been already able to conclude that parents that abuse their children have a tendency not to respond to interviews and participate in data gathering because of the fact that they do not want to be caught as is the obvious result of repercussions either by mistake or by the agency that is conducting the child welfare survey. The solution to this is to make the respondents not know that the interview or the data would be used for identifying the existence of child abuse in a family setting.

We admit that although there is a large literature available regarding child abuse, the research proposal that we are putting forward now would enable us to peer deeper into more closely to the existence of child abuse in the setting of adopted families. Although there are already methodologies that have already been implemented by past studies, these methodologies and statistical analysis do not yet cover the large extent of the occurrence of child abuse and adopted children.

By doing our study, we may be able to further the research in the hopes that we could be able to eliminate pre-adoption probabilities of child abuse, as well as address current issues of child abuse so that social welfare workers may be able to identify child-abuse immediately and be able to do intervention actions in order to prevent further degradation of the health — may be mental, physical, or emotional — of the adopted children

We hope that we have informed you as to the state of the research of child abuse present in adopted families and adopted children, and also hope that you would take consideration in granting our research proposal. By doing so, we would not only contribute to the social and welfare work community, but also be able to improve the quality of life of adopted children as well. Sincerely, Sang-Soo Kwon References Bonnet, C. (1993). Adoption at birth: prevention against abandonment or neonaticide.

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Child Welfare, 73(5), 405. Finkelhor, D. , Williams, L. M. , & Burns, N. (1988). Nursery crimes: Sexual abuse in day care. No. : ISBN 0-8039-3400-9, 272. Gelles, R. J. , & Harrop, J. W. (1991). The risk of abusive violence among children with nongenetic caretakers. Family Relations, 78-83. Golden, O. (2000). The federal response to child abuse and neglect. The American psychologist, 55(9), 1050. Groza, V. , & Ryan, S. D. (2002).

Pre-adoption stress and its association with child behavior in domestic special needs and international adoptions. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 27(1-2), 181-197. Hill, R. B. (1977). Informal Adoption Among Black Families. Nalavany, B. A. , Ryan, S. D. , Howard, J. A. , & Smith, S. L. (2008). Preadoptive child sexual abuse as a predictor of moves in care, adoption disruptions, and inconsistent adoptive parent commitment. Child Abuse & Neglect, 32(12), 1084-1088. Spinetta, J. J. , & ER, D. (n. d.

). The child-abusing parent: A psychological review. Child Abuse: A Multidisciplinary Survey, 14. Tan, T. X. (2006). History of Early Neglect and Middle Childhood Social Competence: An Adoption Study. Adoption Quarterly, 9(4), 59. Tongue, A. C. (1991). The ophthalmologist’s role in diagnosing child abuse. Ophthalmology, 98(7), 1009. Wilson, M. I. , Daly, M. , & Weghorst, S. J. (2008). Household composition and the risk of child abuse and neglect. Journal of Biosocial Science, 12(03), 333-340.

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