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Civil War

The personality of Julius Caesar appeared in this complicated environment. In contrast to Marius, Julius came from a noble Roman family and had a perfect education. He became extremely popular after conquest of Gaul and successful stay in Egypt that actually turned into a Roman province. New eastern influences came as a result of Caesar’s relationship with Cleopatra, who was hated in Rome as a symbol of oriental deprivation. Caesar managed to make use of his popularity, defeat republican forces led by Pompey and proclaim himself dictator. He was the first man to break the entire old social construction by his reforms.

He did that what earlier reformers only proposed: granted citizenship to italics, sent “extensive population” as colonists to the provinces and colonies and eliminated landlessness. His success was predetermined by the army support, yet this did not save him from palace revolution and assassination. Later conflict between Octavian and Antony could not eliminate Caesar’s reforms. Rome became an empire ruled by an emperor, although Octavian’s victory finally ended the war that lasted since Sulla. Pax Romana Octavian Augustus established that what is now called Roman Empire on the place of the Roman republic.

He managed to establish a balance between the central government, magistrates, people and the army marking a long period of prosperity and well-being. In contrast to Greeks, Rome had a mighty power to unify the conquered world maintaining power by praising the loyal and defeating the rebellious and creating strong economy. Augustus’s Settlement (31 B. C. – A. D. 14) The first problem Augustus had to solve was restoration after civil war. In fact, Augustus never attempted to establish own dictatorship, but reestablishment of the republic was no longer possible, so Augustus had to act a dictator, perhaps against his own will.

He normalized the governmental functions and brought safety to the Roman borders His care of education laid grounds for Roman culture. The Principate and the Restored Republic Augustus’s form of government was later called a constitutional monarchy as a compromise between a strong leader “first among equals” and elected collective bodies like senate. Augustus occupied many official positions and enjoyed many powers that are traditionally called monarchic. His power rested both on social agreement and army support.

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