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Costs of urbanization on poor population

The rapid movement of people from rural areas to urban areas to look for job opportunities and better social facilities has ironically led to increased unemployment in many urban centers of developed countries. The poor young people are the ones that are worst affected by this unemployment problem since in most cases, they lack enough training to be able to compete for jobs opportunities with other young job seekers from well to do families. Most of these unemployed youth result into stealing, drug trafficking and “selling their bodies” to make ends meet thus increasing incidents of prostitution and crime in the towns.

Consequently prostitution has led to increase in street children, sexually transmitted diseases where on the other hand, increased crime has discouraged establishment of new investments in crime prone areas (J. E. Hardoy 1990). The careless disposal of wastes such as sewages and other toxic emissions from the industries have resulted to many health complications among the poor urban dwellers in developing countries. These poor people are vulnerable because they are not able to boil water due to financial constraints. (J. E.

Hardoy 1990). Intake of Contaminated of water in slums has led to outbreaks of epidemics like cholera and typhoid whereas on the other hand industrial wastes have resulted to increase in cases of lung cancer, asthma, kidney diseases, lead and mercury poisoning the among people living in polluted areas. (Leach, M and Robin M1991) The high number of people traveling from residential areas to industrial areas to look for casual jobs has resulted increase in traffic jams. This has led to waste of time that can be put to more productive use.

Over population in urban areas has also resulted to congestion in schools and other learning institutions. This has further led to the children from poor parents get limited education since the ratio of students to teachers too high, for the teacher to deliver. These poor parents who count on their children to improve their economic conditions in future are frustrated dismayed since their children are not able to get good jobs from their limited educational qualification and training. (Leach, M and Robin M1991)

Following the prevalent poverty in slums of many developing countries, most people suffer from poor nutrition and health. In some areas, the health and nutrition status of poor urban dwellers is worse compared to that of rural poor. Research has shown that urban infant suffer from rickets, retarded growth and other complication than rural infants by poor parents. ( SCN SYMPOSIUM) Several factors have caused poor nutrition among the poor urban dwellers. First these slum dwellers are unable adapt to new patterns of food prices towns.

These poor urbanites cannot afford the transport costs to central markets and thus they are forced to purchase low quality and unhygienic commodities at a premium price from small -scale food dealers. The establishments of new multinational companies, which target the increased population in these towns has also served to increase competition for goods produced by small-scale artisans. This is a tragedy to such workers since such multinationals are capital intensive and end up only employing a few numbers of such workers who have been displaced from their job.

Such multinational have been known to exploit the locals where they pay foreigners many times as much salary as they give to locals even if the two have same job qualifications. Conclusion The governments of third world countries have a major role to play to minimize the effects that urbanization has caused both to the environment and poor living in such areas. The governments can start by creating environmental laws and ensuring that those who break them are severely fined.

Industries should be requited to dispose their wastes in a more responsible manner and use some of the profits they have made to improve the welfare of society. For the government of developing countries to be able to manage these problems associated with urbanization, and then they should invest heavily on sport provision of transport and communication facilities in rural areas so as encourage relocation of industries in such areas. The jobs created in these rural areas together with improved services will attract some of the jobless people living in the cities

REFERENCES

Bartone, Carl. (1991). “Environmental Challenge in Third World Cities. ” Journal of the American Planning Association Bradley, David, Carolyn Stephens, Sandy Cairncross and Trudy Harpham. (1991). “A Review of Environmental Health Impacts in Developing Country Cities. ” Urban Management Programme Discussion Paper No. 6. Washington, DC: World Bank. Cairncross, Sandy. (1990). “Water Supply and the Urban Poor. ” The Poor Die Young:Housing and Health in Third World Cities. London: Earthscan,

Chrisna du Plessis and Kaixun Sha : Rapidly Populating Cities/ Rapid Urbanization: Retrieved on 26th March 2008 from http://www. sb05. com/academic/14_IssuePaper. pdf. Cohen, Michael. (1992). “Urban Policy and Economic Development – The Agenda. ” In Nigel Harris (ed. ), Cities in the 1990s: The Challenge for Developing Countries. London: University College Press, J. E. Hardoy (1990): The Poor Die Young – Housing And Health In Third World Cities. Earthscan, London. K Parthasarathi: Migration to cities: How to arrest the rapid urbanization?

Retrieved on 26th March 2008 from http://www. blogs. ivarta. com/india-usa-blog-column83. htm Leach, Melissa and Robin Mearns. (1991): Poverty and Environment its Developing Countries: An Overview Study. Brighton: Institute for Development Studies, University of Sussex. Listorti, James A. (1990). “Environmental Health Components for Water Supply, Sanitation and Urban Projects. ” World Bank Technical Paper No. 121. Washington, DC: World Bank. Rees, W (1992) Ecological Footprints

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