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Diplomatic relations

Diplomatic relations help to smooth interactions between states nowadays. Conventions of all kinds not only facilitate inter-governmental relations, but also regulate behavior of the citizens (‘nationals’) as pertaining to any ‘receiving’ state. Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, in particular, clearly outlines the circle of rights and responsibilities of any foreigner outside his country. Thus, a national of a sending state is entitled to protection of any rights of his on the territory of the receiving state.

First of all, it refers to members of the consular post, who enjoy facilities, immunities and privileges (e. g. , personal inviolability, immunity from jurisdiction, social security exemption etc. ). When regarding other citizens of the sending state, they are liable to any legislation currently in action on the territory of the receiving state. Nevertheless, their rights are clearly outlined in the Convention.

Thus, a national infringing law in a receiving state enjoys the following rights: consular aid in defending the nationals’ rights and representation before any authorities of the receiving state; national’s freedom of contact and communication with a consul and vice versa; consul’s freedom of visiting a national in prison, custody or detention, either pre-trial or in pursuance of a judgment; the right of a consul’s direct and instant access to any information regarding a national of a sending state who violated law in any way.

Consular duties of a sending state’s representative also comprise drawing up of appropriate documents for the nationals of a sending state in a foreign country (i. e. , passports, travel documents etc. ), guardianship of minors or any persons lacking full capacity who are citizens of a sending state, and overall protection and representation of their rights and privileges.

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