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Edward Drinker Cope

Edward Drinker Cope was a paleontologist, anatomist, ichthyologist and herpetologist from America and he lived from 1840 to 1897. He was the first son to Hanna and Alfred Cope. Edward’s mother died when he was three and this did not greatly affect the young Cope. Rebecca Biddle, Edward’s stepmother acted as mother and Edward loved both Rebecca and James Biddle Cope, his smaller stepbrother (Rothenberg, 2001, p. 32). Edward’s father’s big house in Philadelphia as well as the eight acre garden provided Edward some natural scenery to discover.

Edward was introduced to reading and writing while very young, and he was taken to zoos, gardens and museums. Edward went to a Philadelphia school in 1853 while aged nine and at twelve, to Pennsylvania’s Friends’ Boarding School. In 1855, Cope went back to Westtown and got interested in Biology; he learned natural records when free. He often went to the Academy of Natural Sciences. Cope displayed his curiosity with science at an early age and published his initial scientific work in 1859. Edward married in 1865 and the couple got Julia Biddle cope, their sole child in 1866.

Cope moved closer to fossil sites in New Jersey after marrying and getting children. Cope’s and O. C. Marsh Bone Wars made him very prominent. A contest to independently issue their discoveries, and hence prioritize such findings used up Cope’s and Marsh’s lives and finances (Dobson, 2002, p. 1114). Cope traversed the American West in search of fossils. Cope’s staunch determination regarding his Neo-Lamarckism principle made him suffer a lot of ridicule from many American Philosophical Society peers as well as from O C. Marsh. Cope and O.

C Marsh helped define American paleontology with Cope publishing 1,200 works throughout his life span. He allocated names to many dinosaur species and named in excess of one thousand vertebrate varieties. Cope’s finest generalized hypotheses include Cope’s Law regarding the steady magnification of mammal species and theories regarding the source of mammal molars. Introduction In 1858, Edward commenced part-time work with the Academy of Natural Sciences cataloguing and reclassifying specimens; he issued his initial research outcome series in 1859.

Edward went to the University of Pennsylvania to study comparative anatomy from 1861 to1862 guided by Joseph Leidy. Cope also worked with the Academy of Natural Sciences to re-catalogue the institutions herpetological anthology. Cope worked for 2 years within which he called at the Smithsonian Institute and met Spencer Baird, an ichthyology and ornithology expert. European tours Edward traversed Europe from 1863 to 1864 and visited all famous societies and museums then. Edward’s European tour took him to Germany, France, Great Britain, Italy, Eastern Europe and Ireland where he met several respected scientists.

Cope encountered Othniel Charles Marsh, aged 32 and studying at the University of Berlin, in 1863 in Germany. Despite the fact that Marsh held 2 academic degrees, he had published only 2 works in contrast with Edward’s 37 published papers at 23 years old. Edward and Marsh exchanged fossils, photographs and manuscripts after Cope left (Sterling, Harmond, Hammond, 1997 p. 32). Cope’s early profession Back to Philadelphia, Edward was hired by Haverford College as a zoology professor in 1864.

For Edward, enriching Haverford student’s minds was pleasurable; however, he could not achieve any progress. In 1869, Cope sold his farm, quit the Haverford job, and relocated to Haddonfield, partly to be near New Jersey’s fossil deposits. By the 1870s, Alfred and Edward had agreed that Edward be a scientist. Edward commenced professional hunting of fossils in New Jersey’s marl depressions; he discovered Lealaps, a large carnivorous dinosaur. Edward also discovered numerous lesser dinosaurs, Cretaceous period vertebrates and mammoths.

Edward’s initial Philadelphia Academy synopsis involved world extinct amphibians and commenced Cope’s 1871 West trips. Edward’s initial Western Kansas trip made him discover entire skeletons in the formerly sea-shore supple sand. Subsequently, Edward went to Colorado and Wyoming, direct4ed by Hayden Survey, and found out 96 fresh species (Chew, 2005, p. 622). In 1874, Edward joined the New Mexico Wheeler Survey. Edward later confessed that the Puerto arrangements of such survey were his most significant geology discoveries. F.

B. Meek, one among the collectors affiliated to Cope, discovered Agathaumas sylvestris, a dinosaur species. Aware that such discovery was completely novel, Edward attempted to be the pioneer scientist to publish information regarding such species. He therefore telegrammed the American Philosophical Society, however, the telegrapher messed the dinosaur name. Such error offered Marsh priority in naming such dinosaur; he named it Triceratops. Cope published Vertebrata of the Cretaceous Formations of the West, a huge volume in 1875.

Owing to the death of Alfred Cope in the same year thus leaving Edward with inheritance worth 250,000 dollars, the younger Cope had funds to engage many fossil hunting teams all year round. Edward directed the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition regarding fossil exhibits in 1876. Cope acquired 50 percent of the American Naturalist rights so as to publish numerous papers and this made Marsh challenge the dating of such papers. Edward again visited Europe and lectured at scientific associations and museums. He purchased a huge fossil selection that originated from Argentina.

The American Museum of Natural History bought such fossils in 1899 and named them ‘The Cope Pampean Collection’. The 1870s The 1870s saw Cope make his most famous finds as well as publish very frequently. Beginning 1979 to 1880, Cope issued works regarding his Colorado and New Mexico travels, as well as regarding his Kansas, Texas, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming and Oregon collectors’ findings. Cope’s most notable anatomical overview, his theory regarding mammal molar teeth tritubercular origin, was issued in 1879. The bone wars

Cope’s and Marsh’s relationship resulted to a bone contest (The Bone Wars) spanning between 1877 and 1892. Such conflict started when the two men returned to USA. While Cope lived in Haddonfield, he and Marsh went to the marl depressions in New Jersey together whereby Edward acquainted Albert Vorhees, the pt owner, to Marsh. Marsh used to secretly ask Voorhees to have the finds discovered sent to Marsh (Chew, 2005, 46). In 1870, Marsh remarked that Elasmosaurus’ (one among Edward’s fossil discoveries) head appeared on the incorrect end, thus evidently declaring that Edward had the skull placed at the tail vertebra.

An argument ensued up the time Marsh and Cope decided that Joseph Leidy should inspect such bones to determine the correct person. Leidy concurred with Marsh that Cope was wrong. Edward was appalled because he already had published some paper regarding such fossil with the American Philosophical Society. Cope promptly attempted to purchase back every copy; however, a few remained around. Leidy revealed Cope’s plot at the subsequent society assembly. Later, cope visited the marl depressions to find Marsh’s men collecting from some area Cope supposed to be his own.

Cope and Marsh never amicably talked from then. Both men were very secretive regarding the origin of their finds. Therefore, cope denied Henry Osborn, a Princeton student, information regarding the whereabouts of Kansas fossil grounds. Upon his 1878 return to USA from Europe, Cope’s worker, O. W. Lucas, had almost 2 years’ finds from the Jurassic sandstone Morrison Formation near Colorado’s Canon City. The Camarasauus, currently among the most identifiable reconstructions of such era, was among such dinosaurs. Cope went to Oregon and San Francisco’s Salt Lake City.

Cope’s later times Cope and Marsh tried, at every opportunity, to disgrace the discoveries each made for twenty five years. Marsh incessantly complained regarding the rapid publishing speed adopted by Cope and alteration of dates. Edward alleged Marsh had carelessly dated his works so as to acquire precedence over disputed discoveries. After Marsh influenced Cope’s removal from the state survey group by Powell, Cope pledges a shocking headline in the New York Herald. Cope had over the years elaborately documented the misdeeds and mistakes of Powell and Marsh.

The initial article appeared on 12th January 1890 hence marking the beginning of a sequence of debates involving Powell, Cope and Marsh. Cope accused Marsh of financial misappropriation and plagiarism and accused Powell of misspending of government funds and geological categorization mistakes (Chew, 2005, p. 627). Powell and Marsh each published their defenses; however, ultimately nothing was changed. Powell’s alleged misappropriation of finances was not investigated and Marsh plus Cope were not held accountable for their errors.

The University of Pennsylvania offered Cope a zoology professor position in 1889. In 1892, the Texas Geological Survey hired Cope a place in their missions in 1892. With improved finances, Cope published the Batrachians of North America a huge volume detailing the organization and analysis of America’s amphibians and frogs. He subsequently published a 1,115 page volume called The Crocodiles Lizards and Snakes of North America. Such two volumes plus Cope’s short reptile and amphibian essays made him among the scientific icons in such fields (Rotherberg, 2001, p. 51).

The initial herpetologists and ichthyologists journal, Copeia, got its 1915 name in Edward’s honor owing to his contribution to such field. The 1890s saw Cope’s publication frequency shoot up to 43 pieces per year up to his 1897 death. Cope’s legacy Cope published in excess of 1,200 technical works in less than forty years including: 1867s On the Origin of Genera; and 1887s The Origin of the Fittest. Cope’s meticulousness and brilliance are exemplified in Cope’s Law and his anatomical simplification of mammalian molar origins. Cope strongly supported Neo-Lamarckism.

Despite the fact that he adored his hypotheses, Cope acknowledged the probability that his hypotheses were wrong. He unearthed and explained in excess of 1,000 fossil vertebrate species as well as issued 600 different titles. Cope was actively involved with numerous scientific associations, most remarkably the American Philosophical Society and the American Academy of Sciences. REFERENCES Chew, A. Z. (2005) . Nothing besides remains: preserving the scientific and cultural value of paleontological resources in the United States. Duke Law Journal, 54; 621-636.

Dobson, J. E. (2002). Great feuds in science: ten of the liveliest disputes ever. The Geographical Review, 92; 1113-1125. Rothenberg, M. (2001). The history of science in the United States: an encyclopedia. New York: Garland. Sterling, K. B. ; Harmond, R. P. ; Hammond, L. F. (1997). Biographical dictionary of American and Canadian naturalists and environmentalists. Greenwood Press. Wallace, D. R. (2004). Beasts of Eden: walking whales, dawn horses, and other enigmas of mammal evolution. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

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