Environmental Biotechnology (Waste Water Treatment)
At the current time biotechnology and laboratory researches take place in the medicine, science, food production, environmental protection and our every day life. What does biotechnology mean? The part “bio” means using of biological processes and the part “technology” means a problem solution of the development of useful products. Just a few years ago this subject was a plot of the science fiction writers, now it is reality. The government of Australia has already understood that biotechnology is a future and the researching of this field requested today:
“Biotechnology is a complex area of science, with numerous different applications and many differing points of view about those applications. This resource helps teachers and students not only explore science, but also the ethical and moral questions that form a part of the present debate on biotechnology. Produced and maintained by the Australian Government agency Biotechnology Australia, Biotechnology Online is a curriculum-based, national school resource first developed in 2001.
The latest version represents a comprehensive update, with a new interface, much more information, new interactive games, more ethics materials, improved search functions and a module on careers” (/www. biotechnology. gov. au). Biotechnology is a term covering a broad range of scientific activities used in many sectors, such as food, health and agriculture. It involves the use of living organisms or parts of living organisms to provide new methods of production and the making of new products or to clear the environment from the dangerous pollutions etc.
Surely, this new science has its strong traits as well as weak ones. Saying about the weak traits of biotechnology in real life, we can mention that biotechnology development is at a very early stage now. Also, it is very costly and, maybe, not always ethic. Nevertheless, each science needs some time for real results and it will be not reasonable to stop the development of this field. Maybe, in 20-30 years we will have some dizzy results, – panaceas from a lot of fatal sicknesses, possibility to live longer etc.
So, saying about the advantages of biotechnology in real life, we need to remember that biotechnology gave us an opportunity to have a choice from the variety of the products and gives us an opportunity to have everything we need the whole year, not depending of the season and state location. Also, now we have a chance to protect the environment from the pollution with the help of this science. This subject has its own place in biotechnology as a whole
Environmental Biotechnology is a modern science, which struggles against environment pollution and develops new methods to save natural resources. An ecological biotechnology uses such methods as the use of living organisms for processing of dangerous wastes and pollution control of environment. For example, some fungi are used for neutralization of toxic by-products of paper industry. Other microorganisms, which live in the dumps of poisonous wastes, split such dangerous compounds as polychloride biphenyl on harmless compounds.
Biotechnologists study mechanisms of water clearing which can be used by microorganisms inhabiting mouths of the rivers to clear the water from chemical pollutions. The methods of ecological biotechnology provide more effective ways comparing to traditional approaches of neutralization of various toxic wastes. Also, these methods considerably reduce the level of our dependence on such methods of garbage utilization as incineration and creation of depositories of toxic wastes. Actually, using of biotechnology for working out ecological problems is not a new idea.
More than one hundred years the mixed types of bacterial populations are used for cleaning of sewage. All living organisms (such as animals, plants, bacteria and other) for their surviving swallow up and digest nutrients and secret the appearing here products of vital functions in an environment. It is a fact that different organisms need different nutrients to survive. Some bacteria eat compounds contained in wastes with pleasure, some other – feed on toxic chemicals, such as chloride of metilen, detergents and creosote.
Specialists of the field of environment protection usually use two methods of bio-reduction of infected by organic wastes grounds: they bring in the infected soil the specialized cultures of bacteria or nutrients, which are the stimulants of activity of already presented microorganisms there. Bacteria take in toxins, swallow and decompose them to the harmless products of vital functions. When all the volume of toxic compounds is processed and decomposed to harmless products, the quantity of population of bacteria-purifiers goes back to a normal level, or they die.
The different methods of bio-reduction by using natural microorganisms are used for making the industrial wastes harmless before putting the in an environment. Also, they are used for cleaning of already existent pollutions. At the current time a few improved systems of cleaning, which use genetically modified microorganisms, are passing testing on efficiency of making the compounds, which don’t easy get the degradation, harmless. In some cases the products of vital functions of microorganisms–fighters for the cleanness of environment possess useful properties.
For example, bacteria, which decompose the compounds of grey appearing in the process of paper production of paper, secrete methane. The methods of biotechnology are cheaper rather identical methods of the traditional laboratories. Also, they can be used without special equipment and almost in every kind of conditions. There are a lot of branches, which use the methods of biotechnology, such as: – chemistry industry – plastic production – paper industry – food industry – textile industry – energetic industry – industrial cattle-breeding – environmental protection.
The main subject of this paper is waste water treatment in Australia from the point of view of environmental biotechnology. So, what about Australia, it has been a quiet player on the international biotech scene during the last years, but at the present time it takes strides to reinvent itself as tomorrow’s young entrepreneur. Environmental biotechnology is a good solution for this. “This supplement to Nature charts that transformation. The Australian federal government’s announcement a ten-year investment program for research and development should please biotech developers.
The package includes more than A$1 billion (US$700 million) over the next seven years to help bring Australian research discoveries to market. This will merge and supersede several existing programs, creating a ‘one-stop shop’ for developers and investors alike to commercialize Australian research discoveries” (Dennis and Byrne). This really shows that Australia is interested in taking part in global environment biotechnology researches. Surely, the nation is proud of this program as they start such requested at the current time thing as environmental protection.
Carina Dennis and Niall Byrne in their article “Australia: Harvesting biotechnology” thinks that “More recently, there have been speculative forays in the discovery of natural products, harvesting the fruits of unique ecosystems to generate novel drug leads. And, although Australia’s medical biotechnology sector has a comparatively modest standing internationally, early signs indicate that it is learning how to garner sufficient support to take discoveries through the development pipeline to clinical trials.
… We are grateful for the support of our advertisers, who made it feasible for us to showcase some of the leading talent in Australia’s biotechnology industry. Nature carries sole responsibility for all editorial content”. Actually, saying about neighbors, New Zealand has one of the fastest growing biotechnology sectors in the world. New Zealand’s biotechnology industry generated an estimated revenue of $811 million in 2005, with over $250 million in exports (supplemented by $160 million in manufactured agritech exports).
This income comprised $515 million from the private sector, $160 million from the public sector and $135 million from the education sector. The industry has helped ensure the continued international competitiveness and efficiency of New Zealand’s food and beverage sector. New Zealand’s biotechnology strength mainly derives from more than 150 years of experience in genetically improving animals and plants, creating one of the world’s most efficient agricultural economies.
The knowledge gained as a world leader in agricultural primary production has combined well with a tradition of scientific research excellence. The convergence of the nutritional and biomedical sciences and food technology is an emerging biotechnology area in which New Zealand can also make a significant contribution. New Zealand has the scientific know-how to help meet the resulting demands for pharmaceuticals, diagnostics, nutraceuticals and functional foods (foods designed and marketed to promote health).
So, it is really true that biotechnology’s role in scientific researches growth every year. What about the official information about environment field in biotechnology in Australia, the Government of Australian State and Territory Governments are working cooperatively to help build on Australia’s capabilities in biotechnology taking place in its development: “The environment industry is rapidly growing worldwide and is seen as a critical enabling sector for mainstream industry (e. g. agriculture, manufacturing, resources and tourism) to maintain international competitiveness.
Australian environment industry exports have been previously estimated at A$300 million per annum. This is only a small share of the total global market, which has been estimated to be around US$500 billion per annum. However, as outlined in this section, there are significant opportunities for building on existing capabilities and developing the environmental biotechnology sub-sector”. (http://www. biotechnology. gov. au) So, Australia taking supported steps to protect the environment and water. The Weekly time says:
“There is a range of emerging capabilities in environmental biotechnology that could also be classified under both the industrial and agribiotech sectors, because they present opportunities to make industrial processes work more efficiently while creating less pollution. These emerging opportunities are listed under environmental biotechnology because of their significant environmental benefits. … Australia has emerging capabilities in the areas of comparative genomics, enzymes and protein systems analysis, as well as herbal medicines and nutraceuticals.
Building on its current capabilities, Australia can develop better knowledge of its microbial resources; the capacity to automate the discovery process (which is already possible in the US); a suite of expression systems appropriate to produce a cost effective product for any given application; a national capability for exploiting natural resources in molecular discovery; and a greater focus on insect genomics and pesticide resistance” (#22, June 2005) Australia is building on its environmental management expertise to be able to manage diffuse pollution sources and predict the rates of contamination in different environments.
Other emerging capabilities likely to support growth in bioremediation include: – sourcing and production of enzymes for recalcitrant chemicals (other than pesticides); – beading technology that will enable strategic remediation of herbicides in agricultural systems; – global commercialisation of developed processes; – increasingly sophisticated biochemistry; – the combination (or convergence) of chemical and biological technologies; and – radionuclides (e. g. their potential use in decommissioning nuclear power stations).
What about Waste Water treatment, Australia is developing state–of–the–art biological monitoring systems and a range of probes for rapid testing of ballast water for unwanted organisms. Opportunities are being explored in: • energy generating wastewater treatments; • bioprocessing of waste streams (e. g. waste water from wineries to recover high quality water and bioproducts); and • removal of blood from abattoirs’ water streams and conversion of waste to value added products (e. g. through research by Meat and Livestock Australia and the Environmental Biotechnology Cooperative Research Centre (EBCRC)).
There is further research being undertaken for better vectors and rapid detection of cyanobacteria (e. g. bluegreen algae) and a better understanding of chemical pathways to improve efficacy and control of remediation (e. g. in wastewater and in soil and water) (The official nformation from government site). Thus, saying about the waste water treatment and biotechnologies in Australia, it can be said that Australia is working hard to improve the situation in country and to protect its environment by using the new technologies and researches of science. Now it can be surely said that Australia is important player in this market.Sample Essay of Essayontime.com