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Addressing matters such as Darfur genocide, environmental laws, public welfare, healthcare, regulations on businesses and their practice, it can be observed that Sudan is not working to benefit its citizenry. Sudan is a country in Africa that borders Egypt, Libya, the Red Sea, Chad, Eritrea, Central Africa, Ethiopia, Congo and Uganda. This country is about one million square kilometers and has portions of the Nile, Sahara desert, the Savannah, as well as the equatorial forest. On the other hand, the central basin of Sudan is taken by the vast Sudd swamp.

Sudan is also rich with subterranean resources such as gold and oil, as well as other minerals (Clammer 1). In terms of racial composition, it is difficult to describe Sudan. Consequently, it has become a common practice for most writers to segregate Sudan to north and south, Arab-Muslim and African-Christian, respectively. Based on the laws of statistical inference, such generalization can be considered significant and fair. If a more rigorous exposition is done on the genealogy of the Arab-Muslim population, then a credible doubt can be imposed on the “Arabness” of the northern half of Sudan.

The remedy for this scenario is the application of the rule of “single drop of blood. ” If not, then it can be safely assumed that the people in the northern half of Sudan are Arabs through cultural orientation. This relationship is supported by the fact Arabism and Islam are present in Sudan (Deng 5). Moreover, since most of the people in northern half of Sudan are Muslims, therefore it can be concluded that they are Arabs. The consideration done on northern Sudan as “Arab” is not a racial heritage.

Rather, it is a psychological preference, and a religious association. On the other hand, the southern half of Sudan is characteristically African (Congo, Ghana and Uganda). Sudan in Arabic is defined as country of blacks. It is a derogative meaning that ironically indigenizes people who consider themselves as Arabs. The partition on Sudan, specifically the north-south line that can be located at latitude 13 degrees-north, is due to the conflict of claiming land between Arabs and Africans.

This conflict, as well as the north-south line continued to exist since the Ottoman Empire in 1824 to 1884 until the rule of British Empire in 1889 to 1995. The present problems pressing in Sudan has its roots in the early accounts of demographic dynamics. To put it in simpler terms, due to the presence of a population from the Arabian peninsula on Sudan, problems faced by the country is increased. This is due to the fact that the evangelical purpose of the government or intention to Islamize the whole country supported or aggravated the crisis and problems of the citizenry of Sudan (Deng 5).

Body The decolonization process that occurred in Sudan at the end of World War II was not able to resolve the conflict of the past and still, persistently, the “Arabs” still had control. In Africa, the western region of Sudan is called Darfur. In recent years, the people of Darfur have been systematically attacked by the Sudanese army. What’s worse is that the Sudanese government that has control over proxy-militia also attacks Darfur. These militia bands are branded as “janjaweed” which is thought to be the combination of the Arabic words “jinn” or spirit and “jawed” or horse.

It is also interpreted as a combination of the words for evil and horse, translated as “devils on horseback”. Another theory draws from the Persian word “jang” or war, interpreting “janjaweed” as warrior (Xavier 4). Darfur holds some of the most isolated geography in the world. Much of Darfur’s area is not easily reached by roads. Since 2003, the increasing violence in Darfur has resulted in an estimated 200,000 to 500,000 deaths. In other words, approximately one in twelve people have been killed from 2003 to 2006.

Attacks on villages take the form of raids, where the janjaweed arrive on horses, camels or in automobiles. They pillage the villages, stealing anything of value. The villagers are often raped and tortured, and many are murdered. Instead of helping the Sudanese citizenry, the Sudan government just adds to the problems and the nightmare of these people. The Sudan government sends its military force and attacks the janjaweed by aerial assaults. Planes bomb the villages causing more destruction and death. The Sudanese soldiers attack on foot, killing and raping more villagers.

Lastly, the soldiers burn what is not already destroyed. The villagers are left decimated so that no survivors can return (Xavier 5). Both the janjaweed and the Sudan government’s soldiers use rape as a method of warfare. Consequently, there is a staggering or countless number of females of all ages who have been assaulted in this way. It is estimated that more than 2,000 villages have been destroyed. Villagers who are not killed are suddenly homeless, wherein the estimated number of homeless already amounts to more than two million.

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