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Erik Erikson

Erik Erikson is known for his work in refining and expanding Freuds Theory of stages. He accepts Freud’s ideas and other loyalist. Erikson comes up with not only five stages of development but eight. He added three more stages of adulthood in Freud’s theory. Erikson uses stages rather than phases. In other words, at a given age a man may in a particular development stage and after that shifts to higher stage. Many researchers and scientist had gone through the theory of Erikson to prove its reliability.

Most of them use the qualitative research methods such as case study and interview methods. Dr. C. George Boeree reviewed Erikson’s theory and the works of other personality theorists. In his discussion, Dr. Beoree (http://ship. edu/~cgbeoree/erikson. html, 2006) wrote “Only Sigmund and Anna Freud fully share the same convictions. Most theorists prefer an incremental or gradual approach to development and speak of “phases” or “transitions” rather than clearly marked stages.

” Further in his discussion he stated that development depends in culture and timings. Merely he compares the works of other theorists and come up with his own ideas on stages of development. However, James Marcia has expanded Erikson’s initial theory. He conducted interviews to measure identity and the different status. He considered three functioning: occupational role, beliefs and values, and sexuality (Kenda Van Wagner, http://psychology. about. com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/identitycrisis. htm, 1966, 1976, and 1980).

Later, together with his colleagues, they postulated different statuses and said that “Identity achievement occurs when an individual had gone through an exploration of identities and made a commitment to one” (Kenda Van Wagner, http://psychology. about. com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/identitycrisis. htm, 1966, 1976, and 1980). Even though many researchers validated the theory of Erik Erikson and uses different methods, all of them lead to improvement and better understanding about the stages or phases of development.

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