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Evaluate your pedigree

With respect to the story of the Kentucky ‘blues’ it seems that the ‘blueness’ happens due to some kind of changes that started with Martin Fugate. The blueness is something that can be considered as a heritable trait since it is passed down from the parents to their children. His is reflected in Ben Stacy’s case wherein he, being a descendant of the Fugate family, also manifests blueness upon his birth. Another thing that makes the case a matter of inheritance is the fact that some members of the Fugate clan and other people nearby do not exhibit the same degree of ‘blueness’.

Therefore, the reason why it appears to the Fugate family can be genetic and thus inheritable. 3. If so, what pattern of inheritance do you suspect? If not, what other hypotheses might you suspect? Explain your answer. The pattern of inheritance that can be reflected on the Fugate’s pedigree is an ‘Autosomal Dominant Inheritance’. This inheritance pattern refers to the passing down of and ‘abnormal or mutated air of genes’. Usually, the Autosomal Dominant Inheritance can be found in an individual in each generation. The inherited trait can affect either males or females.

The trait may not be expressed although it is inherited (recessive) which creates a void in the pedigree. Nevertheless, such ‘skip’ is usually a normal implication of a usual autosomal dominant family tree. In Fugate’s case, since only one of the parents is believed to carry the gene, it is rightly to be categorized as ‘Autosomal Dominant Inheritance’. 4. Provide allele designations for each person in the pedigree. The allele designation for Normal Person is (NN), for blue person (BB) for children of blue person with dominant blue is (Bn) with children who are normal but comes from blue lineage (Nb).

N is for normal dominant, n is for normal recessive, B is for Blue dominant and b is for blue recessive. Questions 1. What are the three lines on the graph in Figure 2 telling us? The straight line in the middle shows that the parents of the blue people has 50% to 100% metHB unreduced, which gives them a 50-100% chance of being blue or ‘blueness’. The straight line of the blue people shows that they have about 90-100% metHB which results to a longer time for the reduction of metHB to HB.

The possibility that the normal people from the blue family of having metHB is 100% to nearly 0% over time since their red blood cells ability to reduce metHB to HB is 0 or close to 0. 2. Provide genotype designations for each line on the graph in Figure 2. Genetic type Normal people bb (Nn) Parent’s of Blue people Bb (Bn) Blue People BB (Bb) 3. After evaluating the data above, what can you say regarding pattern of inheritance for this scenario? It shows an autosomal recessive inheritance because the mutation is expressed only when both of the genes have mutated Blue genes.

This gives a chance to produce a BB genotype and a bb genotype as well. Meaning a dominant blue person and a rececive blue person. 4. Compare your conclusions on pattern of inheritance with those from Part II. Is one perspective more correct than another? Explain. I do not think that one perspective is more correct than the other, it only shows that it can be viewed using two different angles. It shows that sometimes the carrier of the gene might not express blueness but are still affected. In such case if only one parent is affected the chances that the child would also get blueness as a recessive trait is 0.

Part I-The Scientific Method and Unusual Claims Questions 1. How could you identify an extraterrestrial? What evidence would you need to be convinced that a being had extraterrestrial origins? In my opinion an extraterrestrial should have a spaceship and a distinct ability that is not normal in earth. The physical features can vary from normal people but a scientific evidence that he is really from other people is better. I mean something that clinicians, doctors and scientists can attest into. 2. Claims- a. What steps would be involved in scientifically analyzing the claims of extraterrestrial origins for human beings?

What experiments could you design to test this claim? A test of their blood and internal organs, if they display elements that are not earthly. A test of their ability to use language. Provided that there is an extraterrestrial being that can be used for experiment. First the meaning of human and extraterrestrial are to be settled and examined. Then, their hypothesis will be tested through the production of analysis of an extraterestrial—if indeed it has the same features and functions the same way as humans. However, if there is no extraterrestrial present for the experiment, one can only speculate about it.

b. How could you scientifically analyze the Raelian claims linking DNA to etemallife? I do not think that the Raelian claims linking DNA to eternal life can be analyzed scientifically; nevertheless, for the sake of discussion DNA should be examined if it expresses features that reflects the possibility for eternal life, since the act of cloning alone does not actually guarantee an eternal life but merely a replication of human person. What experiments could you design to test their claims? An experiment showing that a clone person produced could show features of an eternal life.

Part II-Human Cloning: Concepts and Issues Questions 1. Scientific Issues- a. What would “proof’ of successful cloning be? A real cloned individual signifying the same DNA as another produced by a notable institution. A transparent report of the process and date involved. b. Are the technical claims for Clonaid’s cloning process consistent with the known technology (e. g. , use of skin cells, use of cells from deceased people)? Are the five miscarriages to be expected? Yes, miscarriages can be expected since they do not cloned a sperm cell but an actual person which do not use the mother’s own egg cell.

There’s the issue of compatibility to the mother host, issue regarding the mother’s reproductive cycle, the complicated process of putting the zygote inside the uterine wall of a woman. The whole cloning from the deceased people is simply weird if they assumed that it will happen only in nine months and would become an infant. The cells might have been taken from a dead infant as well but the period that it would take for it to develop might be relatively longer than usual pregnancy. It is weird that they only claim miscarriages because I think it is impossible that the mother would not experience other complications.

c. Other organisms, such as plants, mice, and sheep, have been cloned. Why has it taken longer to clone humans, or any other primates? Primates are harder to clone because it is more complex than plants, mice and sheep. The amount of time it takes for something to be cloned is very long and very expensive. d. Why does cloning require so many attempts? Why are birth defects and abnormalities common in clones? Cloning takes many attempts because defects and abnormalities are often seen in the cloned animals probably because the process is wrong and/or mundane.

Birth defects are common since there are several alterations that are made throughout the process. There is actually no genuine straight step by step guide to follow in cloning process which leads to wrong steps. 2. Ethics- a. Are there any reasons to promote or allow human cloning? Yes. To prove that it is wrong. b Why would a successful clone be “deeply troubling” to anyone? Why is human cloning controversial? Because it means that a person can have a copy of himself and that the human soul will be in question. c. As a for-profit company, is it ethical for Clonaid to charge people to produce clones?

No. it is not ethical because they are doing it for money. I mean, you can induce a miscarriage to a person several times, and she would pay for the clone several times as well. Also, the cloning process is experimental, the fact that someone volunteered to do the project is queer enough and I consider it dangerous. It is a risk that the person would take so why is there a need to charge for cloning? “The Raelians: Visionary Science or Quackery? ” by Scott D. Zimmerman d. Why is there a race to develop the first human clone? Will the first group/individual who produces a human clone benefit in any way?

The race to produced a human clone is a product of belief that clones are beneficial and would be very productive as a source of income. Of course the first group will benefit as the father and/or mother of all human cloning process. They might produce patent for cloning and that would mean, fame, integrity and money. 3. Your Conclusions- a. Do you believe that Clonaid is a reputable company with the expertise to successfully clone a human being? No, they don’t seem to have enough capability, knowledge, equipment and resources to conduct their experiment.

They also don’t have a real proof to show, they only give out a word which is something that everyone can do. Their credibility is highly questionable. b. Is it likely that Clonaid is/will be the first to produce a human clone? No, they do not have the capacity, the resources, the knowledge, the equipment and the right to do so. c. Should all human cloning be banned? No. Stemmed cells human cloning is beneficial. Creating a clone of a dead person or a living person who can speak and think the same way is weird and might defy religious belief which further corresponds to controversies about being a human.

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