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Fire safety and prevention equipment

Transportation of goods through a pipe is known as Pipeline Transport. Liquid and gases are sent most commonly, but pneumatic tubes that transport solid capsules using compressed air have also been used. Large quantity of natural gas is transported across long distances through natural gas transmission lines. The analysis of these pipelines is very difficult and the day-to-day operations leave little time for optimization. Any chemically stable substance, gases and liquids can be sent through a pipeline. Therefore sewage, slurry, water, or even beer pipelines exist, but arguably the most significant are those transporting oil and natural gas.

Dmitri Mendeleev in 1863 firstly brought the idea. He suggested transporting of Petroleum through a pipe. The United States relies on natural gas for one-quarter of its energy needs. There are a lot of major natural gas production basins in United States and it has an extensive natural gas pipeline network, with almost 95% of U. S. natural gas imports coming from Canada. At present, the gas pipeline infrastructure is more developed between Canada and the United States than between Mexico and the United States. Gas flows from Canada to the United States through several major pipelines feeding U.

S. markets in the Midwest, Northeast, Pacific Northwest, and California. Some of tr examples are the Alliance Pipeline, the Northern Border Pipeline, the Maritimes & Northeast Pipeline, the TransCanada Pipeline System, and West coast Energy pipelines. Of the natural gas consumed in the United States, 85% is produced domestically. The pipeline transmission system- the “interstate highway” for natural gas consists of 180,000 miles of high-strength steel pipe varying in diameter, normally between 30 and 36 inches in diameter.

Huge amounts of natural gas is moved thousands of miles from producing regions to local natural gas utility delivery points with the help of transmission pipeline. These delivery points are known as “city gate stations”, are usually owned by distribution companies, although some are owned by transmission companies. The pressure that is lost through friction as the gas moves through the steel pipes is increased at required distances by Compressor stations. Production, processing and purification, transmission and storage, and distribution are the terms which describe the natural gas system.

This essay focuses on the transmission pipeline. There are mainly two types of pipelines are present in USA- 1. Interstate – Pipeline systems that cross one or more States 2. Intrastate – Pipelines that operate only within State boundaries 3. Natural gas transmission system Natural gas is transported from the producer to the market areas via pipelines. The transmission segment of the gas industry is responsible for this. The transmission system is composed of pipelines, compressor stations, city gate stations, and storage facilities.

Transmission Pipelines Steel is used for making the transmission pipelines. They are generally operated at pressures ranging from 500 to 1,400 pounds per square inch gauge. Pipelines can measure anywhere from 6 to 48 inches in diameter, although certain component pipe sections can consist of small-diameter pipe that is as small as 0. 5 inch in diameter. However, usually only gathering and distribution systems use this small-diameter pipe, although some is used for control-line or gauge-line purposes.

Mainline pipes or pipes in the principal pipeline in a given system are usually between 16 and 48 inches in diameter. Lateral pipelines, which deliver natural gas to or from the mainline, are typically between 6 and 16 inches in diameter. Nearly all major interstate pipelines are between 24 and 36 inches in diameter. The actual pipeline is called “line pipe” and it consists of a strong carbon steel material engineered to meet standards set by the American Petroleum Institute (API), American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM), and American National Standards Institute (ANSI).

Line pipe is produced in. These steel mills are sometimes specialized to create only pipeline-quality components. There are two dissimilar production methods are used, one for small diameter pipes and one for large-diameter pipes. sheets of metal that are folded into a tube shape are utilized for large-diameter pipes, from 20 to 42 inches in diameter and the ends are welded or fused together to form a pipe section. On the other hand Small-diameter pipe can be produced seamlessly.

Heating a metal bar to very high temperatures is involved in this technique and after the heating a hole is punched through the middle of the bar to produce a hollow tube. Before being shipped from the steel mill the pipe is tested to ensure that it can meet the pressure and strength standards for transporting natural gas. Pipelines are usually buried underground. The burial depth varies depending on the local geography along the pipeline route. 2 to 4 feet to top of pipe is Normal depth requirement.

Many transmission pipeline companies transfer gas to metropolitan markets. A natural gas transmission pipeline in the western states has the average diameter of is around 20 inches with an average length of around 11 miles per segment between line valves. Approximately 68,000 miles of transmission pipelines are present in this region. “Schematic of Natural Gas Production, Processing, Transmission, and Storage” Pipe-Coating Materials The pipe should not be corroding once placed in the ground. Hence coating mills apply pipe coatings on the pipes before grounding.

The coating mill should be located adjacent to the pipe mill, so line pipe moves directly from the pipe manufacturer to the coating facility. To protect the pipe from moisture, corrosive soils, and construction-induced defects coating is necessary. A number of different coating techniques are present. Specialized coal tar enamel is used in the past for the coating purpose. Today, pipes are often protected with a fusion bond epoxy or extruded polyethylene. Both of which give the pipes a noticeable light yellow color.

Cathodic protection is often used, which is a technique that involves inducing an electric current through the pipe to ward off corrosion. The external surface of the pipe is thoroughly cleaned with a shot-blast process before preparing for fusion-bond epoxy coating. After it the pipe is heated to a prescribed temperature and an epoxy powder is applied. The powder “melts” onto the heated pipe and forms a water-tight barrier. The mill tests the coated pipe (called “jeeping”) with high voltage to evaluate the coating’s insulating effectiveness prior to transporting the pipe to the job site.

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