French and indian war
The French and Indian War was fought between American Indian allies and French against British colonial forces. This war was considered the bloodiest war in American history and it was a North American chapter of Seven Years’ War. It was fought by the two British enemies; American Indian and royal French forces being the fourth among the colonial war between kingdoms of Great Britain and France which led to British conquest of Canada. This led to significant developments in the century of the Anglo-French conflict. This war was also known as forgotten war like the Korean War.
French and Indian War came about as a result of various reasons. The two states wanted to expand their territories to cater for their economic interests among them being fur trading. They both claimed for the enormous territory between Mississippi River and Appalachian Mountains from Great Lakes to Gulf of Mexico. This war had adverse effects for the three continents with its major cause being struggle for struggle for expansion of territory between English forces and French. The effects of this war are the ultimate causes of American Revolution (Anderson, 36).
French Indian war which was a colonial extension of seven years ravaged Europe. Being the bloodiest American War it was accompanied by loss of more lives than American Revolution involving people from all continents. This war was the product of an imperial struggle, a conflict between French and England territory over colonial territory and wealth. The war was a product of localized rivalry between French and British. There had been a rising tension between British and French with each wanting to expand its territory.
Canada was the war ground and as the war went on, the struggle become worse with Lake Champlain becoming the main battle ground. French seized Fort William Henry at the southern end of the lake. This port was significant because it had holder command of Hudson River and northern New York. This port also protected Ticonderoga and St. Frederic port. The success of French was short with British troops capturing Fort Frontenac which was the main supply of French forces. French forces were now completely cut off from reinforcement of troops, food and weapons.
This was followed by British victory at Fort Niagara and Quebec. The Battle of Quebec was a heroic struggle between French and British because French thought they were safe being surrounded by easily defensible plains and sea but British troops attacked them from there (Nester, 103). Indian leader made a significant difference in both his capability to recruit allies and capability to lead a successful struggle against French. Britain had more hard time crafting successful Indian policy and getting Indians to cooperate as allies in the War than the case with French.
British policy toward Indians was to make them Englishmen to minimize graciousness. There was also eager to convert Indians Protestants to Christianity and change their traditions and induct them into British way of life. Although French were no more considerate towards Indians, they were traditionally much less interested in changing history and culture of the people they came across. French were successful in making Indians allies and negotiating with Indians. This gave them a crucial advantage in the war (Fowler, 59). This war began when French captain rejected demand of Virginian Major to withdraw from Ohio region.
By the start of the war English forces were not successful. After British forces started capturing back French territories they won the battle with British forces controlling Quebec after their success in capturing Montreal province. Effects of French Indian War enabled British to completely capture the whole of North America. The French Indian War proceeded through three phases; early period began with localization of action in North American and loss of Washington’s at Fort Necessity. No side had fully committed itself in strengthening troops and resources.
Most action was confined in attempt to capture opponents fortifying positions on edge. In the middle phase, this started with declaration of war between France and Britain touching off the first true world war. North American conflict remained a localized affair but rearrangement of European alliances ignited new rivalries to add festering argument between Britain and France. In the final phase decision of British of concentrating on North American stage of the conflict. The investment of huge sums of money and inventive new military talent helped to provide the margin of victory (Anderson, 51).
French and Indian War opened hostilities among various states leading to extraordinary growth of population among the colonies. Britain needed raw materials and great deal of money thus offering shipment of American products. These colonies were interested in overcoming French in North America and appealed to King permission of raising armies and levy to protect themselves (Fowler, 62). Causes and effects of French and Indian War French and England started this first war which was inexorably forced to be changed again and again until the significant question of undivided sovereignty over the French land.
French was the strong power on that land and they won the long and decisive conflict. After two and half centuries, France and England started a mighty struggle which was the second Hundred Years’ War. This war from its nature and results was more appropriately known as Great Imperial War. This time was not out of possession of any certain land but general command of the sea with this change having a real difference. They renewed the second war at every crisis just like the first War until a command of the sea was resolutely settled as an actual possession of the land between France.
French governors and Roman Catholic hierarchy and missionaries made English colonist fear French due to papal influence in North America (Nester, 107). This war was a supreme struggle that was going for many years between England and French in the New World. There was hostility that intensified in 1970’s when both English and French settlers were trying to colonize land in Ohio River Valley. Each thought they had the right to own the land. Due to the victory of British in the War they successfully disqualified French from the New World.
They virtually handed over all the New World possessions including Canada. They succeeded in retaining few small islands off the Canada and Caribbean coasts. They agreed to stay out of India making Great Britain absolute military power. The whole of North American face had radically changed. England gave limits on settlement in the west of Appalachian Mountains in effort to conciliate Indians who had positive relations with France (Anderson, 67). Since England had incurred significant debt during the war, the Parliament tried to get back the financial loss by issuing 1765 Stamp Act on the colonists.
French Indian War led to vast loss of man and materials for all the countries. British forces succeeded and ascertained their military supremacy. The most significant effect of French Indian War was that The British had the right to keep all of Canada in addition to attain some other benefits such as trading and sea routes in North America. Its effects were also felt in other parts of the world. Since the war started in North America, Europe was not isolated as the war extended to the Europe. The French Indian war in Asia caused “Third Carnatic War.
” French Indian War had a positive effect of starting struggle for freedom in America which culminated in American War of Independence. This war severely downhearted French Forces and lessened its power at greater scale in Europe, Asia and North America at the same time (Fowler, 75). The war officially ended with signing of the Treaty of Paris which led to loss of all North American possessions of France in the east of Mississippi. France got back the Caribbean island that was occupied by British. Economic value of the island to France was more than that of Canada because of rich sugar crops and it was easier to defend the island.
British were happy to take New France. The French Indian war changed political, economic and social relations between Britain and its colonies. It led Britain into debts which the Crown chose to pay off the increased tax money from the colonies (Nester, 112). Indians played a great role in French Indian War. Their assistance was the main reason as to why French who were out numbered were still able to come out victors in so many early battles and hold out against English for seven years. The victory of British in the French Indian war had great effect on British Empire.
It meant a great extension of the British territorial claims in the New World. The cost of the war had greatly enlarged the debts of Britain generating a considerable anger on colonists among English leaders who were not contented with the financial and military help they received from colonists during the war. All these factors combined to persuaded many English leaders that colonies required major restructuring and central authority. To the American colonists the war had equally thoughtful but very different effects. The colonists had learned to unite against common foe.
Before the war, the thirteen colonies had found almost no common ground and they coexisted in common doubt (Fowler, 81). Conclusion Battle of Quebec was the British victory and loss. England had gone loss by funding the War since the War was made to protect borders of American colonies. This led to great turmoil in America. The French and Indian War showed American colonists how English army and navy they were powerful. It also showed how these troops were vulnerable. Americans noticed efficiency of revolutionary strategies used by Native Americans and French.
The results of French Indian War ended successfully with French political and cultural influence in North America. England gained huge amounts of land and enormous reinforcement on its holds on the continent. This war had subtler consequences. It badly eroded relationship between Native Americans and England. Although the War seemed to strengthen England’s hold on colonies, the effect of the War played a great role in deterioration the relationship between England and its colonies which eventually resulted to Revolutionary War.
Works Cited Anderson, Fred, Crucible of War: The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754-1766, New York: Alfred A. Knopf: Random House, 2000 Fowler, William, Empires at War: The French and Indian War and the Struggle for North America, 1754-1763, New York: Walker, 2005 Nester, William, The Great Frontier War: Britain, France, and the Imperial Struggle for North America, 1607-1755. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2000Sample Essay of RushEssay.com