Freud Vs Jung: Approach to Creativity
One of the issues that have failed to be adequately defined within the scholarly world is the relationship between creativity and science. As Bergquist (2009) explains it, the definitions have adequately and exhaustively explained the creative products and the individuals from which the process is embodied but failed to touch on the real phenomenon of creativity. He further equates the twisted relationship with science which adequately defines the living organisms and all there intricate functional capacity but fails to define what life exactly is. This difficulty has resulted into several attempts by scholars to come up with definitions.
Some have been believed to have had a great contribution to the field of psychology while others have been totally thrown into the basket due to their abundance of weaknesses. Among the greatest contributors in this struggle has been Sigmund Freud who has given several models of creativity among them the pathography and the Neurotic model and the joke mechanism. On the other hand, Carl Jung has also had a great deal of contributions in this field providing his own perspectives of the definition of the creative string in the human nature through his theories of psychological art and the visionary art.
Based on the fact that these two writers have had a great contribution in this field, this work will try to parallel their suppositions and see the similarities and differences. Sigmund’s Approach His contribution in the psychoanalytic theory is termed as one of the most cited suppositions in the building of all other theories within this school. In this theory, the proponents argue that creativity comes up from the unconscious drives within the artist. Although the approach has different perspectives, the common denominator purports that “creativity is a by product of primary processes” within the artist’s body (Bergquist, 2009).
In his contribution, Freud posits that fantasies and daydreams are all products of unhappy people and that it is from these that creativity emanates. In his argument he points out that “Unsatisfied wishes are the driving power behind fantasies; every separate fantasy contains the fulfillment of a wish, and improves and unsatisfactory reality” (Freud, 1908, cited by Bergquist, 2009). According to Freud, neurosis and creativity are so much related and that they both had their origins in the conflict of fulfillment of wishes and the primary biological drives and processes.
At age three, a creative person starts to experience creative sexual curiosity which eventually experiences out lets later in life in three distinct ways. “… first is repression, which is quite energetic. The second outcome occurs when sexual investigation is not totally repressed but is coped with by thought processes or by compulsive defenses. In the third outcome which is the’ most rare and perfect type,’ sexual curiosity is sublimated into that inquisitive attitude which leads to creativity (Freud, 1908, cited by Bergquist, 2009). Freud’s Pathography and Neurotic Model
Pathography is a form of a biography that focuses on the negative aspects of the subject. According to Freud, pathology’s primary objective is to bring out the other side of an artist which the biographer fails to identify because of his fixation to his hero. He used this word for the first time in the essay Leonardo (1910). In his own perspective, the use of pathology is not supposed to diminish the accomplishments of the artist but it is an objective endeavor of a person who has overgrown the compelling wishes of idealizing the subject and thus aims at pointing out the real truth of the matter (Glover, 2005).
Freud’s approach entails the recollection of the artist’s background details and experiences and then identifying his all the possible forms of repressions, complexes and neuroses. Once the psychological considerations have been clearly specified, the artist’s products are thus put on the dissection table to analyze the relationship between the works in relation to those psychological conditions. Pathography is therefore a form of analysis that relates the artist to his work with the absence of the artist himself so that he cannot speak for himself.
The pathologist therefore believes that the work of creativity simply identifies the inner conflicts of the artist in terms of the repressed anxieties and in most cases the infantile nature. In his analysis of ‘The Moses of Michelangelo’ Freud clearly confesses that he is not a connoisseur of art. As a result, he is not conversant with the technical and formal qualities of a work of art but what attracts him is the content or the subject matter.
Therefore, Freud posits that the analysis of a work relies on the identification of the work of art, in this case the sculpture, Moses which is the subject and the creator of the work in this case the sculptor (Glover, 2009). Freud’s approach is greatly founded in the Romantic tradition which greatly advocates that the external world of the artist which is visual art or the poem or sculpture is a clear projection of what the mind of the artist was.
He holds on the position that the work of art is an externalization of the internal state of the artist. In his approach to creativity, Freud feels that the pathographer must first identify what internal feelings, conflicts and desires and the psychic state that are being expressed in the given work. Therefore, what marks the essence of creativity as pointed out by the Romantic tradition and forms the basis of Freud’s creativity theories is the fact that the “artist’s inner life of feeling finds concrete expression in his work” Glover, 2009).
Concerning psychoanalysis, Freud purports that mental constitution of an artist and his instinctive impulses can easily be identified through the summing up of the interrelationship between the impressions of the life of the artist, the experiences of his life and the his works. In his position, Freud argues that the works of the artist are the reactions to the impressions of the artist’s childhood and his life history. He argues that the psychological history and the inner conflicts of an artist usually are printed out in his works.
In this theory, he emphasizes not on the inner part of the artist but the fantasies expressed in the works. In his book, Creative Writers and Day-Dreaming, he points out that a creative writer is a “neurotic day-dreamer who allows us to enjoy our own dreams without shame. ” The works of an artist gives a narcotic effect to the artist himself and the audience so that they can have a chance to escape from reality into a world of fantasies. During day-dream, the day-dreamer allows the wishful fantasies to take total control without considering the impossibilities within the reality.
Just like the day-dreamer, the artist is able to allow himself to enjoy the wishful fantasies within his unconscious self. The only difference between the day-dreamer and the artist is that the later is able to revert into the reality (Glover, 2009). Therefore, a good artist is one who is able to bring out his fantasies in a way that does not repel his audience or himself and also he is able to shape up some materials so that they give a real representation of the desired fantasy within the mind of the artist.
Furthermore, a real creative artist is able to twine together a great amount of pleasures within his fantasy so much that the experience greatly outweighs the suppressions. If an artist can achieve this, he will be in position to touch and stir the unconscious pleasures of the audience and thus will have given them the accessibility code for their fantasies that had been inaccessible for a long time. All these have a single reason: to win the love power and honor of women. The Joke Mechanism
While the psychoanalytic model is viewed to be undeveloped, the joke mechanism is taken to be more inclusive despite the fact that it has not been embraced in a vast way as compared to the psychoanalytic model. In this theory, Freud identifies three stages in the growth of a joke. Within the child’s psychology there is the love for the games of recognition resulting into verbal play. Because of the children’s perception of words as the things they represent, they tend to believe that words are similar contain the same meaning. This comes as a result of theSample Essay of RushEssay.com