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Global warming

With global warming as the topic of discussion, we’ll look at the description of the term global warming, the causes and characteristics of global warming, the effects, the advantages and disadvantages, the adaptations and mitigation and global warming in relation to the Bible. The term ‘global warming’ refers to the increase in the average atmospheric temperature of the Earth. This process as it is known today, refers to the earth’s heating process that has consistently occurred since mid-20th century and its highly likely continuation due to the use of the word ‘warming’ in its present-continuous form.

The earth’s atmospheric temperature has increased 0. 74 ± 0. 18 °C (1. 33 ± 0. 32 °F) during the 100 years before 2005 (Michaels, J. P. 2007). The global body that was setup to investigate and formulate recommendations on global warming, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), concludes that most of the temperature increase since the mid-twentieth century is as a result of the increase in greenhouse gas emissions. Natural occurrences such as solar variation and volcanoes probably had an almost negligible warming effect from pre-industrial times to 1950 and a subsequent cooling effect from 1950 onward.

Majority of scientists working on climate change agree with the IPCC’s findings and conclusions over the subject (Weart, R. S. 2003). Current scientific examinations and observations show that global atmospheric temperature will likely rise by a significant 1. 1 to 6. 4 °C (2. 0 to 11. 5 °F) during the most period in the twenty- first century (Lafreniere, F. G. 2008). There are two conspicuous uncertainties in these projections; one is the uncertainty in the estimate which is as a result of using random figures (estimates) of future greenhouse gas emissions and using experiments with differing climate sensitivity.

The second uncertainty is how warming and related changes will vary from region to region around the globe. Warming is expected to continue for the next hundreds of years even if man controls his production of green house gases, his results from the large heat absorption capability of the oceans. Increasing global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation in form of rain, snow and fog, likely including an expanse of the subtropical desert boundaries among other notable effects as will be assessed here-in (Johansen, B. E. 2006).

Most national governments have signed and ratified the Kyoto Protocol which aims at reducing greenhouse gas emissions to a controllable extent. The Kyoto Protocol has brought with it unending debates of whether a single body should attempt to control green house emissions by dictating the terms of industrial functions of the signatory countries. As the debate rages on, the earth is continuously, rapidly disintegrating (Gore, A. 2007). CAUSES OF GLOBAL WARMING The causes of global warming present another raging debate of the beginning of global warming. The scientist William Ruddiman has argued that human influence on the subject began

about 8,000 years ago with the on-set of forest clearing to provide Agricultural land and was enhanced 3,000 years later with the start of Asian rice irrigation. Ruddiman’s findings and conclusions have been a point of argument and diversion in the scientific world. Below are some of the causes of global warming that have received and caused less divergence than convergence with the various parties involved (Gore, A. 2007). Greenhouse Gas Emissions Commonly known as the green house effect, it is defined as the process by which absorption and emission of infrared radiation by atmospheric gases warm a planet’s atmosphere.

(Langholz . A. J and Turner. K. 2003). The scientific consensus is that the increase in atmospheric greenhouse gases due to human activity caused most of the warming observed since the start of the industrial era, and the warming cannot be satisfactorily explained by natural causes alone. This attribution is clearest for the most recent 50 years, being the period most of the increase in greenhouse gas concentrations took place and for which the most complete measurements exist. (Houghton, J. T. 2004). The greenhouse effect was discovered by Joseph Fourier in 1824 and first investigated quantitatively by Svante Arrhenius in 1896.

Existence of the greenhouse effect as such is not disputed. The question is instead how the strength of the greenhouse effect changes when human activity increases the atmospheric concentrations of particular greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2). Naturally occurring greenhouse gases have a mean warming effect of about 33 °C (59 °F), without which Earth would be uninhabitable. On Earth the major greenhouse gases are water vapor, which causes about 36–70 percent of the greenhouse effect; carbon dioxide (CO2), which causes 9– 26 percent; methane (CH4), which causes 4–9 percent; and ozone, which causes 3–7 percent.

Human activity since the industrial revolution has increased the atmospheric concentration of various greenhouse gases, leading to increased radiative forcing from CO2, methane, ozone, CFCs and nitrous oxide. The atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and methane have increased by 36% and 148% respectively since the beginning of the industrial revolution in the mid-1700s. These levels are considerably higher than at any time during the last 650,000 years, the period for which reliable data has been extracted from ice cores. From less direct geological evidence it is believed that CO2 values

this high were last seen approximately 20 million years ago. Fossil fuel burning has produced approximately three-quarters of the increase in CO2 from human activity over the past 20 years. Most of the rest is due to land-use change, in particular deforestation. CO2 concentrations are expected to continue to rise due to ongoing burning of fossil fuels and land-use change. The rate of rise will depend on uncertain economic,sociological, technological, and natural developments. Fossil fuel reserves are sufficient to reach this level and continue emissions past 2100 if coal, tar sands or methane clathrates are extensively exploited.

Solar Variation This option in the causes of global warming is given as a result of solar variation recorded over the last thirty years. Some other hypotheses departing from the consensus view have been suggested to explain most of the temperature increase. One such hypothesis proposes that warming may be the result of variations in solar activity. Two researchers at Duke University, Bruce West and Nicola Scafetta, have estimated that the Sun may have contributed about 45–50 percent of the increase in the average global surface temperature over the period 1900–2000, and about 25–35 percent between 1980 and 2000(Houghton, J.

T. 2004). A different hypothesis is that variations in solar output, possibly amplified by cloud seeding via galactic cosmic rays, may have contributed to recent warming. It suggests magnetic activity of the sun is a crucial factor which deflects cosmic rays that may influence the generation of cloud condensation nuclei and thereby affect the climate. (Singer. F. S and Avery, D. T. 2007). One predicted effect of an increase in solar activity would be a warming of most of the stratosphere, whereas an increase in greenhouse gases should produce cooling there. The observed

trend since at least 1960 has been a cooling of the lower stratosphere. Reduction of stratospheric Ozone also has a cooling influence, but substantial ozone depletion did not occur until the late 1970s. Solar variation combined with changes in volcanic activity probably did have a warming effect from pre-industrial times to 1950, but a cooling effect since. In 2006, Peter Foukal and colleagues found no net increase of solar brightness over the last 1,000 years. Solar cycles led to a small increase of 0. 07 percent in brightness over the last 30 years. This effect is too small to contribute significantly to global warming.

One paper by Mike Lockwood and Claus Frohlich found no relation between global warming and solar radiation since 1985, whether through variations in solar output or variations in cosmic rays. Henrik Svensmark and Eigil Friis-Christensen, the main proponents of cloud seeding by galactic cosmic rays, disputed this criticism of their hypothesis. A 2007 paper found that in the last 20 years there has been no significant link between changes in cosmic rays coming to Earth and cloudiness and temperature. (Singer. F S and Avery D. T. 2007) EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING None of the effects of forcing are instantaneous.

The thermal inertia of the Earth’s oceans and slow responses of other indirect effects mean that the Earth’s current climate is not in equilibrium with the forcing imposed. Climate commitment studies indicate that even if greenhouse gases were stabilized at 2000 levels, a further warming of about 0. 5 °C (0. 9 °F) would still occur (Philander, S. G. 1998). When a warming trend results in effects that induce further warming, the process is referred to as a positive feedback; when the effects induce cooling, the process is referred to as a negative feedback. The primary positive feedback involves water vapor.

The primary negative feedback is the effect of temperature on emission of infrared radiation: as the temperature of a body increases, the emitted radiation increases with the fourth power of its absolute temperature. This provides a powerful negative feedback which stabilizes the climate system over time (Philander, S. G. 1998). Climate variability The Earth’s climate changes in response to external forcing, including greenhouse gases, variations in its orbit around the Sun (orbital forcing), changes in solar luminosity, and volcanic eruptions; all examples of the earth’s own variation in temperatures, for which the UNFCCC uses

the term climate variability. One of the most pronounced positive feedback effects relates to the evaporation of water. If the atmosphere is warmed, the saturation vapour pressure increases, and the quantity of water vapor in the atmosphere will tend to increase. Since water vapor is a greenhouse gas, the increase in water vapor content makes the atmosphere warm further; this warming causes the atmosphere to hold still more water vapor (a positive feedback), and so on until other processes stop the feedback loop. The result is a much larger greenhouse effect than that due to CO2 alone. Although this

feedback process causes an increase in the absolute moisture content of the air, the relative humidity stays nearly constant or even decreases slightly because the air is warmer. This feedback effect can only be reversed slowly as CO2 has a long average atmospheric lifetime. Effects due to clouds are an area of ongoing research. Seen from below, clouds emit infrared radiation back to the surface, and so exert a warming effect; seen from above, clouds reflect sunlight and emit infrared radiation to space, and so exert a cooling effect. Whether the net effect is warming or cooling depends on details such as the type and altitude

of the cloud. These details are difficult to represent in climate models, in part because clouds are much smaller than the spacing between points on the computational grids of climate models. “Joint science academies’ statement on growth and responsibility(McKibben, B,2007). Ice Trends A subtler effect relates to changes in the lapse rate as the atmosphere warms. The atmosphere’s temperature decreases with height in the troposphere. Since emission of infrared radiation varies with the fourth power of temperature, long wave radiation emitted from the upper atmosphere is less than that emitted from the lower atmosphere.

Most of the radiation emitted from the upper atmosphere escapes to space, while most of the radiation emitted from the lower atmosphere is re-absorbed by the surface or the atmosphere. Thus, the strength of the greenhouse effect depends on the atmosphere’s rate of temperature decrease with height: if the rate of temperature decrease is greater the greenhouse effect will be stronger, and if the rate of temperature decrease is smaller then the greenhouse effect will be weaker. Both theory and climate models indicate that with increased greenhouse gas content the

rate of temperature decrease with height will be reduced, producing a negative lapse rate feedback that weakens the greenhouse effect. Measurements of the rate of temperature change with height are very sensitive to small errors in observations, making it difficult to establish whether the models agree with observations. (Singer, S. F. & Avery, T. D. 2007). Another global warming effect is ice-albedo. When global temperatures increase, ice near the poles melts at an increasing rate. As the ice melts, land or open water takes its place. Both land and open water are on average less reflective than ice, and thus absorb more solar radiation.

This causes more warming, which in turn causes more melting, and this cycle continues. Warming is also the triggering variable for the release of methane from sources both on land and on the deep ocean floor, making both of these possible effects. Thawing permafrost, such as the frozen peat bogs in Siberia, creates a positive effect due to release of CO2 and CH4. Methane discharge from permafrost is presently under intensive study. Warmer deep ocean temperatures, likewise, could release the greenhouse gas methane from the ‘frozen’ state of the vast deep ocean deposits of methane clathrate/methane hydrate, according to the

Clathrate Gun Hypothesis, Ocean ecosystems’ ability to sequester carbon are expected to decline as it warms. This is because the resulting low nutrient levels of the mesopelagic zone (about 200 to 1000 m depth) limits the growth of diatoms in favor of smaller phytoplankton that are poorer biological pumps of carbon (McKibben, B,2007). Temperature Changes Global temperatures have increased by 0. 75 °C (1. 35 °F) relative to the period 1860–1900, according to the instrumental temperature record. This measured temperature increase is not significantly affected by the urban heat island effect. Since 1979, land temperatures have increased

about twice as fast as ocean temperatures (0. 25 °C per decade against 0. 13 °C per decade). Temperatures in the lower troposphere have increased between 0. 12 and 0. 22 °C (0. 22 and 0. 4 °F) per decade since 1979, according to satellite temperature measurements. Temperature is believed to have been relatively stable over the one or two thousand years before 1850, with possibly regional fluctuations such as the Medieval Warm Period or the Little Ice Age. Sea temperatures increase more slowly than those on land both because of the larger effective heat capacity of the oceans and because the ocean can lose heat by evaporation more

readily than the land. The Northern Hemisphere has more land than the Southern Hemisphere, so it warms faster. The Northern Hemisphere also has extensive areas of seasonal snow and sea-ice over subject to the ice-albedo feedback. More greenhouse gases are emitted in the Northern than Southern Hemisphere, but this does not contribute to the difference in warming because the major greenhouse gases persist long enough to mix between hemispheres (Houghton, J. T. 2004). Based on estimates by NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2005 was the warmest year since reliable, widespread instrumental measurements became available in the late 1800s,

exceeding the previous record set in 1998 by a few hundredths of a degree. Estimates prepared by the World Meteorological Organization and the Climatic Research Unit concluded that 2005 was the second warmest year, behind 1998. Temperatures in 1998 were unusually warm because the strongest El Nino-Southern Oscillation in the past century occurred during that year. Anthropogenic emissions of other pollutants—notably sulfate aerosols—can exert a cooling effect by increasing the reflection of incoming sunlight. This partially accounts for the cooling seen

in the temperature record in the middle of the twentieth century, though the cooling may also be due in part to natural variability. James Hansen and colleagues have proposed that the effects of the products of fossil fuel combustion—CO2 and aerosols—have largely offset one another, so that warming in recent decades has been driven mainly by non-CO2 greenhouse gases(Langholz . A. J and Turner. K. 2003). Pre-human Climate Variations Earth has experienced warming and cooling many times in the past. The recent Antarctic EPICA ice core spans 800,000 years, including eight glacial cycles timed by orbital variations

with interglacial warm periods comparable to present temperatures. A rapid buildup of greenhouse gases amplified warming in the early Jurassic period (about 180 million years ago), with average temperatures rising by 5 °C (9 °F). Research by the Open University indicates that the warming caused the rate of rock weathering to increase by 400%. As such weathering locks away carbon in calcite and dolomite, CO2 levels dropped back to normal over roughly the next 150,000 years (Gore, A. 2007). Sudden releases of methane from clathrate compounds (the clathrate gun hypothesis) have

been hypothesized as both a cause for and an effect of other warming events in the distant past, including the Permian–Triassic extinction event (about 251 million years ago) and the Paleocene– Eocene Thermal Maximum (about 55 million years ago). Attributed and expected effects Environmental Sparse records indicate that glaciers have been retreating since the early 1800s. In the 1950s measurements began that allow the monitoring of glacial mass balance, reported to the WGMS and the NSIDC (Weart, R. S. 2003). Although it is difficult to connect specific weather events to global warming, an increase

in global temperatures may in turn cause broader changes, including glacial retreat, Arctic shrinkage, and worldwide sea level rise. Changes in the amount and pattern of precipitation may result in flooding and drought. There may also be changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Other effects may include changes in agricultural yields, addition of new trade routes, reduced summer stream flows, species extinctions, and increases in the range of disease vectors (Weart, R. S. 2003). Some effects on both the natural environment and human life are, at least in part, already

being attributed to global warming. A 2001 report by the IPCC suggests that lacier retreat, ice shelf disruption such as that of the Larsen Ice Shelf, sea level rise, changes in rainfall patterns, and increased intensity and frequency of extreme weather events are attributable in part to global warming. Other expected effects include water scarcity in some regions and increased precipitation in others, changes in mountain snow pack, and adverse health effects from warmer temperatures. Social and economic effects of global warming may be exacerbated by growing population densities in affected areas.

Temperate regions are projected to experience some benefits, such as fewer deaths due to cold exposure. A summary of probable effects and recent understanding can be found in the report made for the IPCC Third Assessment Report by Working Group II. The newer IPCC Fourth Assessment Report summary reports that there is observational evidence for an increase in intense tropical cyclone activity in the North Atlantic Ocean since about 1970, in correlation with the increase in sea surface temperature (see Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation), but that the detection of long-term trends is complicated by the quality of records prior to routine

satellite observations. The summary also states that there is no clear trend in the annual worldwide number of tropical cyclones. Additional anticipated effects include sea level rise of 180 to 590 millimeters (0. 59 to 1. 9 ft) in 2090-2100 relative to 1980-1999, repercussions to agriculture, possible slowing of the thermohaline circulation, reductions in the ozone layer, increasingly intense (but less frequent) hurricanes and extreme weather events, lowering of ocean pH, and the spread of diseases such as malaria and dengue fever. One study predicts 18% to 35% of a sample of 1,103 animal and plant

species would be extinct by 2050, based on future climate projections. However, few mechanistic studies have documented extinctions due to recent climate change and one study suggests that projected rates of extinction are uncertain(Lafreniere, F. G. 2008). Economic The projected temperature increase for a range of stabilization scenarios (the colored bands). The black line in middle of the shaded area indicates ‘best estimates’; the red and the blue lines the likely limits. From the work of IPCC AR4. Some economists have tried to estimate the aggregate net economic costs of damages from climate change across the globe.

Such estimates have so far yielded no conclusive findings; in a survey of 100 estimates, the values ran from US$-10 per tonne of carbon (tC) (US$-3 per tonne of carbon dioxide) up to US$350/tC (US$95 per tonne of carbon dioxide), with a mean of US$43 per tonne of carbon (US$12 per tonne of carbon dioxide). One widely publicized report on potential economic impact is the Stern Review. It suggests that extreme weather might reduce global gross domestic product by up to one percent, and that in a worst-case scenario global per capita consumption could fall 20 percent. The report’s methodology,

advocacy and conclusions have been criticized by many economists, primarily around the Review’s assumptions of discounting and its choices of scenarios. Others have supported the general attempt to quantify economic risk, even if not the specific numbers. Preliminary studies suggest that costs and benefits of mitigating global warming are broadly comparable in magnitude. According to United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), economic sectors likely to face difficulties related to climate change include banks, agriculture, transport and others. Developing countries dependent upon agriculture will be particularly harmed by global

warming (Singer, S. F. & Avery, T. D. 2007). ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF GLOBAL WARMING Advantages Global has grown infamous due to the negative attributes associated with it. Despite this, global warming does have positive attributes, albeit controversial. Global warming is characterized by increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Scientific studies have undisputedly demonstrated that plants use carbon dioxide to manufacture food in the photosynthesis process. Therefore with the increase of carbon dioxide, plants have the adequate resources to manufacture more food and grow healthier.

This fact has increased hope for agricultural dependent societies due to the higher prospects of more production especially in the recent food crisis faced all around the world. (Philander, S. G. 1998). The second advantage of global warming regards the thawing of the arctic and the Antarctic ice. The melting of this ice has led to the exposure of land which has enabled the arctic communities to pursue planting of crops for a living. (Johansen, B. E. 2006). Disadvantages The disadvantages of global warming far outweigh the advantages. The effects of global warming have brought with them catastrophic happenings including unfavorable weather

occurrences, and the emergence of extra costs in dealing with the effects. In the recent past the world has experienced unpredictable and unfavorable weather that includes Elninos, Laninas, Tsunamis, cyclones among other devastating effects. Extra costs have been incurred in seeking to mitigate and address the effects of global warming. Various companies that have been accused of propagating global warming through pollutant emissions have been forced to change their modes of production and manufacturing processes to suite the required regulations carried forward by governments.

These actions have led to the increase in production costs. Adaptation and Mitigation The broad agreement among climate scientists that global temperatures will continue to increase has led some nations, states, corporations and individuals to implement actions to try to curtail global warming or adjust to it. Many environmental groups encourage individual action against global warming, often by the consumer, but also by community and regional organizations. Others have suggested a quota on worldwide fossil fuel production, citing a direct link between fossil fuel production and CO2 emissions.

There has also been business action on climate change, including efforts at increased energy efficiency and limited moves towards use of alternative fuels. One recently developed concept is that of greenhouse gas emissions trading through which companies, in conjunction with government, agree to cap their emissions or to purchase credits from those below their allowances. (Weart, R. S. 2003). The world’s primary international agreement on combating global warming is the Kyoto Protocol, an amendment to the UNFCCC negotiated in 1997. The Protocol now covers more than 160 countries globally and over 55 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions.

Only the United States and Kazakhstan have not ratified the treaty, with the United States historically being the world’s largest emitter of greenhouse gas. This treaty expires in 2012, and international talks began in May 2007 on a future treaty to succeed the current one. China and India, though exempt from its provisions as developing countries, have ratified the Kyoto Protocol. China may have passed the U. S. in total annual greenhouse gas emissions according to some recent studies. Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao has called on the nation to redouble its efforts to tackle pollution and global warming.

(Houghton, J. T. 2004). U. S. President George W. Bush contends that the Kyoto Protocol is an unfair and ineffective means of addressing global climate change concerns, claiming it that it “exempts 80 percent of the world, including major population centers such as China and India, from compliance, and would cause serious harm to the U. S. economy. ” Bush has instead promoted improved energy technology as a means to combat climate change, while various state and city governments within the United States have begun their own initiatives to indicate support and compliance with the Kyoto Protocol

on a local basis, such as the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative. The U. S. Climate Change Science Program is a joint program of over 20 U. S. federal agencies working together to investigate climate change. The IPCC’s Working Group III is responsible for crafting reports that deal with the mitigation of global warming and analyzing the costs and benefits of different approaches. In the 2007 IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, they conclude that no one technology or sector can be completely responsible for mitigating future warming. They find there are key practices and

technologies in various sectors, such as energy supply, transportation, industry, and agriculture, that should be implemented to reduced global emissions. They estimate that stabilization of carbon dioxide equivalent between 445 and 710 ppm by 2030 will result in between a 0. 6 percent increase and three percent decrease in global gross domestic product. According to Working Group III, to limit temperature rise to 2 degrees Celsius, “developed countries as a group would need to reduce their emissions to below 1990 levels in 2020 (on the order of –10 percent to 40 percent below 1990 levels for most of the considered regimes)

and to still lower levels by 2050 (40 percent (Sic. 80 percent in Box 13. 7, p776) to 95 percent below 1990 levels), even if developing countries make substantial reductions. “(Johansen, B. E. 2006). Economic and political debate Increased publicity of the scientific findings surrounding global warming has resulted in political and economic debate. Poor regions, particularly Africa, appear at greatest risk from the projected effects of global warming, while their emissions have been small compared to the developed world. At the same time, developing country exemptions from provisions of the Kyoto

Protocol have been criticized by the United States and Australia, and used as part of a rationale for continued non-ratification by the U. S. In the Western world, the idea of human influence on climate has gained wider public acceptance in Europe than in the United States (Lafreniere, F. G. 2008). The issue of climate change has sparked debate weighing the benefits of limiting industrial emissions of greenhouse gases against the costs that such changes would entail. There has been discussion in several countries about the cost and benefits of adopting alternative energy sources in order to reduce carbon emissions.

Organizations and companies such as the Competitive Enterprise Institute and Exxon Mobil have emphasized more conservative climate change scenarios while highlighting the potential economic cost of stricter controls. Likewise, various environmental lobbies and a number of public figures have launched campaigns to emphasize the potential risks of climate change and promote the implementation of stricter controls. Some fossil fuel companies have scaled back their efforts in recent years, or called for policies to reduce global warming. Another point of contention is the degree to which emerging economies such as India and

China should be expected to constrain their emissions. According to recent reports, China’s gross national CO2 emissions may now exceed those of the U. S. China has contended that it has less of an obligation to reduce emissions since its per capita emissions are roughly one-fifth that of the United States. India, also exempt from Kyoto restrictions and another of the biggest sources of industrial emissions, has made similar assertions. The U. S. contends that if it must bear the cost of reducing emissions, then China should do the same. (McKibben, B,2007). GLOBAL WARMING IN RELATION TO THE BIBLE

Global warming today has been related to the predictions as documented in the Bible in the book of revelations. These relations with global warming have been traced as far back as genesis where the lord gave man dominion over the earth. The following documentation is given as the evidence of the duties, obligations and evidence given to man with regards to global warming and its repercussions: God blessed them and said to them, “Be fruitful and increase in number; fill the earth and subdue it. Rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air and over every living creature that moves on the ground.

” Then God said, “I give you every seed-bearing plant on the face of the whole earth and every tree that has fruit with seed in it. They will be yours for food. And to all the beasts of the earth and all the birds of the air and all the creatures that move on the ground everything that has the breath of life in it—I give every green plant for food. ” And it was so(Genesis 1:28-30). So then, men ought to regard us as servants of Christ and as those entrusted with the secret things of God. Now it is required that those who have been given a trust must prove faithful (1 Corinthians 4:1-2).

“The nations were angry; and your wrath has come. The time has come for judging the dead, and for rewarding your servants the prophets and your saints and those who reverence your name, both small and great—and for destroying those who destroy the earth. “— Revelation 11:18 The fourth angel poured out his bowl on the sun, and the sun was given power to scorch people with fire. They were seared by the intense heat and they cursed the name of God, who had control over these plagues, but they refused to repent and glorify him. (Revelation 16:8-9). As shown above, the bible starts by documenting the ob

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