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Global warming

Global warming resulting from climate change has been an alarming issue worldwide. People have been on watch out trying to find measures of combating global warming due its adverse diverse effects (Hileman, 16). With increase on average global temperature ocean water expand in volume with additional water entering them which were previously locked up on glacier on land. With increasing temperature, current sea level is rising at a rate of 1. 8mm per year for the past century posing dangers to costal regions (Gornitz, 1611).

The most globally experienced effect of global warming is rising of the sea level. This is through combination of thermal expansion in volume due to global warming on ocean temperatures and melting of glaciers leading to rise in sea level. This poses danger to coastal areas and low-lying cities (Titus, 57). Glaciers are good indicators of global warming when they advance during cooling and retreat. They shrink because of global warming threatening water supply. When temperature rises, ice caps melt leading to rise in sea level.

Increased temperature in Polar Regions due to global warming increases the rate and intensity of volcanic activity leading to melting of magma which also drains to sea (Titus, 105). Global warming is increasing the rate of sea level rise through thermal expansion of water and from additional water to oceans from melting of continental ice sheets. Thermal expansion has been well quantified and it is the main contributor to rise in sea level. Glacial contribution to rise in sea level is less significant compared to thermal expansion.

Glacial contribution to rise in sea level is more difficult to quantify due to its small amount (Bruun, 119). Various factors affect volume of ocean resulting in long-term changes in sea level. This is because temperature increases as a result of global warming and mass of water locked up on sea, land, fresh water in rivers, polar ice caps, glaciers and sea ice. Changes in shape of oceanic basin and sea distribution also affects sea level (Wilcoxen, 129). Glaciers and ice caps in the polar melt due to increased temperature. Oceans fall in Antarctica and ice sheets as snowfall.

If the ice is not returned to the ocean then there will be a drop in sea level (Titus, 140). Global warming increases the rate of evaporation and precipitation. There are considerable changes in these processes. Clouds that lead to precipitation can indicate climate change. This increases rate and intensity of rainfall which flows to oceans leading to rise in sea level (Scott and Greenberg, 1555). Global warming causes rise in sea level which is hazardous to coastal areas, low-lying cities, ecosystem and biodiversity along the coast.

If government and human don’t take any measures, rise in sea level will lead to flooding destroying the coastal ecosystem and biodiversity. It will erode the coast destroying coastal banks and eroding the rich soil. Cities and human settlements along the coast will be washed away and tourist activities will be hindered leading to economic loss (Fairbridge and William, 534). This rise also threatens water quality in aquifers and estuaries. Due to these worst effects, possible efforts should be taken to mitigate global warming that leads to rise in sea level.

Measures of protecting affected areas with dikes should be put in place. People should develop barrier islands and river deltas to protect coastal area from erosion and avoid flooding (Barnett, 7980). Works Cited Barnett, Tom, “The Estimation of “Global” Sea Level Change: A Problem of Uniqueness,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 89, No. 5, 1998, pp. 7980-7988 Bruun Peter, “Sea Level Rise as a Cause if Shore Erosion,” Journal of Waterways and Harbors Division, Vol. 1, 2000, pp. 116-130

Fairbridge Rayne & Krebs William, “Sea Level and the Southern Oscillation,” Geophysical Journal, Vol. 6, No. 4, 2000, pp. 532-545 Gornitz Viler, “Global Sea Level Trend in the Past Century,” Science, Vol. 215, No. 42, 1999, pp. 1611-1614 Hileman, Brian, “Case Grows for Climate Change,” Chemical and Engineering News, Vol. 9, No. 7, 1999, pp. 16-23 Scott David & Greenberg Aston, “Relative Sea Level Rise and Tidal Development in the Fundy Tidal System,” Canadian Journal of Earth Science, Vol. 20, 2003, pp. 1554-1564

Titus James, “Greenhouse Effect, Sea Level Rise, and Land Use,” Land Use Policy, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1990, pp. 138-153 Titus James, “Greenhouse Effects, Sea Level Rise and Barrier Islands,” Coastal Management, Vol. 18, No. 1, 2004, pp. 104-110 Titus James, et. al, “Greenhouse Effect, Sea Level Rise and Coastal Drainage Systems,” Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, Vol. 113, No. 2, 2001, pp. 57-64 Wilcoxen Paul, “Coastal Erosion and Sea Level Rise: Implications for Ocean Beach,” Coastal Zone Management Journal, Vol. 14, No. 3, 2005, pp. 127-134

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