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Historical Accounts

Formally referred as Warsaw Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, the Warsaw Pact of 1955 is wrote for the purpose of integrating the military, economic and cultural strategies of the socialist countries located in Central and Eastern Europe excluding Yugoslavia. It was signed in May 14, 1955 in the Polish Capital of Warsaw following a three-day convention with signatories being USSR, Hungary, Albania, Bulgaria, Poland, East Germany, Romania and Czechoslovakia.

Albania earlier withdrew from membership in 1961 due to difference in beliefs particularly in interference of Soviet Union in Hungary and also it chose to support China over Soviet Union in 1968 separation of Sino-Soviet alliance. With reunification of East and West Germany in 1990, the closing assembly of the Pact’s members finally happened in 1991 at Prague that ended Warsaw Pact of 1955. The framework behind the drafting of the Pact is derived way back from Soviet’s experience in World War II particularly how it fought against German troops.

Being the dominant country in the Pact enabled its proven-effective “command and control procedure” to guide its allies towards a coherent offence and defense stance. Also contributed by the same war, the Soviet’s leadership in the Pact is attributed by its military presence in the national territories of almost all Pact members except Albania and Czechoslovakia. To complete the evidence to prove the significance of the Pact, the Soviet used its bilateral treaties to its allies to encourage membership and creation of its East European alliance blockade against enemies.

These events all contributed to the shaping and eventual signing of the Pact. In the initial years of the Pact’s execution, it is held merely as diplomatic tool although it gained success in encouraging Europe to remove American military presence in the continent, shaking West-nation relationships and impressive guile of Soviet over Western pressures. As expected, the Soviet Union largely exploited its dominance and membership in the Pact to mobilize its plans and strategies.

It succeeded control over member-allies, majority of the Pact’s leaders are Russians and obtained ability to violate the Pact’s explicit and implicit rules with minimal contention. The last feature also served as starting point of military aggression of Soviet not to supposedly Western perpetuators but more on the Pact’s members. One illustration is the Revolution inflicted in Hungary in 1956 where Soviet troops interfered and eradicated the hostility.

Another, when Czechoslovakia wanted to distance from the Pact and protect its sovereignty in 1968, Soviet troops led the invasion with far larger combatants being sent compared to other members. Lastly, the Soviet pressured Poland to sustain the latter commitment on the Pact. In these cases, the same Pact that promised non-interference on internal affairs of its members diluted this principle. Discussion of the Pact’s Contents

The Pact reflected the counter-measure of the Soviet-headed faction against the creation of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 1949 and its active move in militarizing West Germany that can ignite warfare across Europe and persuading Middle East countries to attack Soviet Union including its allies. The NATO protagonists that the Pact is directly addressing are USA, Great Britain and France. It is intended to maintain peace in Europe and desired to gather the support of all European countries regardless of political and cultural structures.

As the Pact used the doctrine of the United Nations, it is eager to protect the independence of potential and pre-determined members. It created two administrators; namely, the Political Consultative Committee and Unified Command of Pact Armed Forces which are responsible for the non-military and military activities of the Pact respectively. There are eleven articles stated in the Pact. The first article affirmed the use of violence in settling international peace in accordance with United Nation Standards.

The second article specified the principle of the precedence in the commitment to reduce armed assault and abolition of biological weapons of mass destruction. The third article addressed the issues of coordination among members in reaching a decision. The fourth article asserted mutual military assistance if one of the members are attached by outside forces. The fifth and sixth articles are both intended to establish the Pact administrators mentioned above.

The seventh article barred Pact members to enter associations and treaties which may be bilateral, multilateral or even international in nature if it against the tenets of the present Pact. Perhaps the most controversial, the eight article barred members to participate in internal affairs of another. The ninth, tenth and eleventh articles stated the eligibility of inspiring members, ratification closures and duration (e. g. twenty years). Impact to USA

The Pact gave USSR the same international leadership that can level with the US. According to Albanian authorities, USSR and US interests are engraved in both Warsaw Pact and NATO respectively. The supposed war particularly observed in Cold War is merely intended to create a motivational issue to strengthen military forces of both super powers. This included deployment of troops within the boundaries of allies that mobilize the Soviet Power on Europe especially on the eastern part.

As a result, the prominence of USA as the most influential nation in the global scene is demoted by the creation of the Pact which gave rise and supported the leadership of USSR not only in the Eastern Europe but more importantly in the international arena. Further, the Pact disrupted the intention of USA to promote capitalism in the communist countries that resulted to slower mobilization of US-based companies. Even after the dissolution of the Pact in 1991, its implications on the US can be argued.

The military strategy of the Soviet is superior to the US version of NATO that led to acceptance of some countries in the developing world to support USSR in its ideologies that includes Yemen and Ethiopia. The Pact fostered standardization not only of armaments, where the concept of NATO dwells, but beliefs among sovereign countries. As a result, political and economic elements are included in every decision and cooperation among the Pact members. The inability of US to maintain the top-most position in influencing international relations is seen as loophole in NATO.Generally, this weakness trickled difficulties of efficient control over the resources of US outside its borders.

References

Bonds, R. (1980). The Soviet War Machine, Salamander Books; London. Douglass, J. (1980). Soviet Military Strategy in Europe, Pergamon Press; New York. The Avalon Project. Retrieved on December 6, 2007 on www. yale. edu/lawweb/avalon/intdip/soviet/warsaw. htm Fordham. Retrieved on December 6, 2007 on www. fordham. edu/halsall/mod/1955warsawpact. html

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