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History of Theater

History of theatre begins with the definition of theatre because the topic itself is too vast and we have to chose what to include and what to not, Here, we deal with the development of theatre as an art form consisting of works written for the stage and intended to be performed by actors on a stage. In the early days theatre is a very sound medium of saying things. The people can take lots of color and joy from the theatre and they also can learn lots of lesson from it.

Now a days theater is spread all over the world but earlier it was only the part of Greek and roman festivals. Actually the history of theater starts with Greeks and roman way back in 700 B. C.. earlier theater was not that popular all over the world now a days they are popular this is because of a single person and a legend he is Shakespeare. a person who is responsible for the development of theatre.

We have divide this topic in few topics that’s helps to know this topic better then any thing else in the first section we talk about the birth of theatre. in the second section we talk about the impact of Shakespeare on theater and how he give a new birth to this art then in the third section we will see what did the audience expect from the actors performance of Othello in Shakespeare’s time and we are also going to see what did the audience expect from the actors performance of streetcar named desire in Tennessee Williams time.

Then in the fourth section we are going to discuss about the further development of theater as an art form during the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. Birth of theater: Greek theatre took place in large (the largest ultimately held twenty thousand people) hillside amphitheatres. The players included a chorus and their leader, and the “lines” were more chanted than spoken this happened back in 400 B.

C this may first glimpse of theater in this world in Greek The use of masks to represent characters and high-soled boots worn to add height to the players limited the movement of actors however the term “actors” themselves was not originally a part of Greek theatre, but was developed as a consequence of certain playwrights of particular genius.

in Greek the drams and the plays they where arranged in the honor of the Greek god “Dionysus”. But the fall of Greeks became the region of the downfall of the theater in Greek. After the Greek theatre lived in Roman culture and after the decline of Greek government and society coincided with the rise of the Roman Republic and subsequent empire.

The Romans borrowed extensively from Greek theatre Although Roman theatre may not be held in the same high esteem as that of the Greeks, we have inherited much from the influence of the Roman Theatre, including the word “play” itself, which derives from a literal translation of the Latin word ludus, which means recreation or play but still the roman culture helped theatre to live at that time they also included some of the new and quite interesting things in theatre and plays.

Although roman served a great deal in term of theatre but after a while they also just like Greek they also fall and once again theatre was in trouble. Some have written that theatre died following the fall of the Roman Empire, and its memory was kept alive only in the performances of roving bands of jongleurs: itinerant street players, jugglers, acrobats and animal trainers.

However, while such troupes did help to maintain certain aspects of theatrical art, particularly that involving stock characters, the Church itself contributed to the preservation of theatre. Impact of Shakespeare- in the earlier part we have seen the beginnings of theatre in Greece, its migration to Rome, and its decline during the Middle Ages.

In this part we will examine about the rebirth of theatre and its domination by a playwright of genius. It is during this period that theatre re-emerges from the Church and becomes secular theatre — although it remains largely under the control of the state, be that sovereign King or Republic. but then a man come known as William Shakespeare (1564-1616) who wrote and acted in his plays in the late 16th and early 17th Centuries.

he was widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language His surviving works consist of 38 plays,[b] 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, and several other poems. His early plays were mainly comedies and histories, but then he wrote tragedies until about 1608 including the plays like Othello, hamlet, etc. because of the Shakespeare the interest of the people in theatre which was lost has come back.

Because in his plays people can see his plays also motivate the reality and them. So we can say that the Shakespeare is a person who give the rebirth to the theatre his contribution was not only that he motivated people towards theatre but he also write some great script that really helps the life of theatre in today’s world as well because His plays have been translated into every major living language, and are performed more often than those of any other playwright.

In the twentieth century, his work was repeatedly adopted and rediscovered by new movements in scholarship and performance. His plays remain highly popular today and are consistently performed and reinterpreted in diverse cultural and political contexts throughout the world. Shakespeare plays touched every aspect and every part of our society but still in my view his greatest achievement is his re discovery great Greek and roman ideal especially as evinced in the work s of literary theory of Aristotle, longings and Horace.

Third section: Earlier we discuss about the impact of Shakespeare on the theatre and the people of 16th century now in this section we are going to discuss about the impact of the plays written by Shakespeare plays like Othello the Othello is play which resolves around the four characters Othello, his wife Desdemona, his lieutenant Cassio, and his trusted advisor Iago.

The play is very relevant and is quite famous because of its varied themes — racism, love, jealousy and betrayal. The play opens with Rodrigo a rich and a foolish gentleman complaining to Iago, a high-ranking soldier, that Iago has not told him about the secret marriage between Desdemona, the daughter of a Senator named Brabantio, and Othello, a black general of the Venetian army.

And this the story of all four of them the audience expect a great deal from this play only and Othello fulfill all those expatiation Othello possesses an unusually detailed performance record The first certainly-known performance occurred on November 1, 1604, at Whitehall Palace in London. Othello is a play that is about tragedy that heptanes when a love turned bad unfound jealousy all that drama begins in Venice the character that are there in the play like Roderigo and Lago.

Roderigo wants Othello’s girlfriend that’s why he pained Iago to spy on Othello but he fears that Iago is not being loyal to him his loyalty is towards Othello. On the other hand lago explains his hatred of Othello for choosing Cassio as his officer or lieutenant and not him as he expected. This is a very small part of this big play but in my view this is enough to describe the effect of this drama to audience the first act is full of jealousy and lie where one parson tall a lie to another just for his own purpose.

The audience, what can they aspect from the drama like this they saw a person like Othello who is nice and who always stand for his name but on the other hand they saw a person like Iago and Roderigo both were not honest to anyone they always tried to do something evil so one the one side they saw good thing and on the other side they saw lots of bad things as well.

The audience really expect from the actors performance of Othello in Shakespeare’s time that they should be able to describe all the expression above like loyalty, love, dishonesty, tragedy and all other part of the drama they really expect that actors live the whole play so that they can see a true picture of various feelings so that feelings which were present no matter they are good or bad people get those feelings.

That was the beauty of Shakespeare’s and his drama’s. We just discussed about Othello the play written by Shakespeare’s and the expectation of the people from Othello now we are going to talk about another famous play that is a Streetcar Named Desire written by Tennessee Williams he was another famous American writer. May be he was not that famous like Shakespeare but still he was very good.

He is widely considered the greatest Southern playwright and one of the greatest playwrights in the history of American drama . that was a very little information about Williams now we shall talk about the play he wrote that is Streetcar Named Desire and we are also going to talk about what did the audience expect from the actors performance of Streetcar Named Desire in Tennessee Williams time.

the actors in the drama played the role of Blanche Dubois, Stella Kowalski ,Stanley Kowalski etc. Streetcar Named Desire takes place right after World War II, in New Orleans. This play mainly represents the relationship of Blanche, Stanley and Mitch that shows how the relation between Stanley and Blanche goes horrible in the mean while the relation between Stanley and Mitch goes strong how they fall in love.

and how Blanche turns increasingly to alcohol for comfort. In this play the people really expect the actors that they do full justice to various role. And the actors did a very nice job people saw lots of emotion and tragedy. Streetcar Named Desire and Othello have some similarities but Othello cover a large number of emotion in compression to Streetcar Named Desire . this is all about both the plays and their impact on the audience. Fourth section:

now we should move to our last section that is further development of theater after the period of Shakespeare theatre still able to mainline there legacy now when the period of TV and electronics media has come theatres are finding difficult to having his values but still the glimpse of light is present because the famous actors are also trying to give a new life to this art. ” community theatres” they are also trying for the welfare of this art but we are hoping for the best for one of the oldest art of world

Conclusion: Now as we saw how theatre gets started by the Greek and roman and then how Shakespeare give new life to this dying art. We should always remember the contribution of theatre in the life of human beings theatre is one of the oldest way expressing the feelings so we should try to keep this art safe by helping theatre. we can actually do this by taking participation in this event and try rich this art by giving new ideas as Shakespeare did in 16th century.

References:

http://www.tctwebstage.com/comunity.htm

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Othello

http://absoluteshakespeare.com/guides/othello/othello.htm

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