History Of Video Game Consoles
Advancement of computer technology continues creating new tools that help human to do their work much easier, simpler, and better. In 1980s, most computer applications come in the form of text-based user interface such Word Stars and Chi Writer. Less than a decade later, in 1990s, we start using a graphical user interface in most computer applications such as Microsoft Word, Word Perfect and many others that we use on daily basis.
In the 21st century, most applications have emerged to be graphical in appearance than we experienced before so that we are more familiar with the term GUI, which stands for Graphical User Interface. The situation is also applicable to the development of video games development in which more than three decades ago, the first generation of video games only displays dash and text. Nowadays, the display of video games is high resolution showing details of picture vividly. Television and video games had become parts of modern life.
In some nations, television and movies have great influential presences that they look as though the entire community evolve around them. Due to the influences of television of human, it is found that many ‘know-how’ and behavior are obtained by watching television. Video games also display similar tendencies in influencing people’s life, as video game software producers now target people from all ages and preferences for consumers. Both of these entertainment media (video games and television) have grown to be as much as ‘inseparable’ to modern cultures.
As video game consoles industry continues spawning new producers/developers, this paper will figure out whether the use of advanced technology helps developer/manufacturer of video game consoles to win the competition. 2. Aims and Objectives The objectives of this paper are to discuss the development of video games consoles since its first generation to the current models. Systematically, we can derive the objectives into several points as following: ? This paper aims at discussing the history of video game consoles since its first development in 1960s to recent and possible future models
? Using the non-participant observation method, collecting data and analyzing qualitative information from magazine and online materials to reach an understanding about the impact of video games on human’s behavior ? Using the relationship of research approach, deductive, quantitative to explore the relation between models of video game consoles and the development of computer technology 3. Literature Review 3. 1 Video Game Consoles and Personal Computer Like personal computers (PCs), video game consoles also use processor that run the machines and display vivid picture.
Therefore, the development of video game consoles complies with the development of computer technology including the processor and graphics cards. Due to particular uses of computer machine for gaming purpose, developer of computer technology started differentiating the game-only from multi-purpose computer machines. While the multi-purpose computer machines develop into PCs and laptops, the gaming-only machines appear in many forms since each developer races towards making their products as the standard machines. 4.
2 Trends of Video Game Consoles: Matters of Bits As mentioned above, the races between manufacturers of video game consoles base on two things speed and high-quality graphics. Both of them relate to the characteristics of gaming machines in terms of bits. Therefore, it is common that in advertisings, developers must say that their products have higher bits. Sony PlayStation 2, for instances, is claimed to be backed up by 128-bit system so does the Microsoft Xbox although in fact the processor, the brain of video game consoles, of Xbox is only 32-bit.
This situation raises questions about the representation of ‘bits’. By meaning, bits represent the capability of video game consoles in producing output that has a greater range of colors, more sprites, and provides graphical technologies such as scaling, and vector graphics. The old video game consoles like TurboGrafx 16, Genesis, and SNES, for instances, were generations that claim to use 16-bit processors and refer to 16-bit era. Meanwhile, a previous model like Atari was known to live at 8-bit era. However, consumers often misperceive the terms of bits.
For instances, TurboGrafx 16 actually has only an 8-bit CPU/processor but provides a 16-bit dedicated graphics processor. It is similar to the case of Xbox that advertise to get into 128-bit era although in fact the machine only uses 32-bit processor. 4. 3 Differentiation Strategy and Generations of Video Game Consoles As described above, the key changes of video games console is the use of faster machine. Therefore, advanced technology becomes differentiation for game consoles manufacturer in order to win a fierce competition.
This is in line with the theory of differentiation strategy by developing products or services that have particular features that are different from competitors have. The reason of attaining product’s differentiation is to differentiate a company’s product from competitors’ products. Therefore, manufacturers of video game consoles race towards developing consoles that provide high-quality graphics, high-speed processor that ensure smooth and comfortable gaming experience, and portability.
Since 1967, the year that historians recognized as the coming of first generation video game consoles, the race towards producing high quality game consoles get intense. Recently, the latest generation of game consoles is Microsoft Xbox 360 and Sony PlayStation 3, which consider being at the seventh generation. To be precise, the seven generations of video game consoles are as following: 4. 3. 1 First Generation The first generation computer was actually appeared in 1950s but the “brown box” (figure 1).
The console was designed by Ralph Baer, a german television engineer, and his co-workers. This first console works by using a player and connects it to a television. At that time, the developers of “brown box” developed a totoal of 12 games. Figure 1 Brown Box Source: www. time. com After the invention of ‘brown box”, in 1972, Magnavox Odyssey first launched its video game consoles in 1972. Fortunately, the first game console that rings the game market was not Odyssey but Atar’s game called PONG, which developed by Nolan Burhnell, the founder of Atari in 1972.
Unfortunately, in 1975, Atari sold a home version of Pong in Sears Stores, which further labeled Atari under Sears Tele-Games. 4. 3. 2 Second Generation The second generation of video game consoles started at 1976 where Fairchild produce Fairchild Video Entertainment System (VES). The particular feature of VES lie on the its characteristic that has a programmable microprocessor. This feature was beneficial since the cartridge only needed a single ROM chip to store microprocessor instructions. Figure 2 Atari 2600 VCS Source: www.
time. com Realizing the competition from new competitiors, RCA and Atari immediately released cartridge-based consoles, which enable customers to change games instead of palaying similar games in a machine. In 1977, Atari released Atari 2600 VCS that soon became a hit in video game console industry due to its accompanied games such as Space Invaders, Missile Command, and Combat. The year of 1977 also causes Fairchaild and RCA to leave the vidoe game console competition, leaving only Atari and Magnavox in the console market.Sample Essay of Custom-Writing