Homosexuality in the world
The word homosexual is used to describe the sexual orientation of men and women who find their primary emotional and sexual fulfillment with people of the same sex (Davies & Janosik, 1991). Homosexuality is only an aspect of personality, as is heterosexuality. According to Davies & Janosik (1991), identifying people solely by their choice of sex partners tends to belittle them; it conveys the impression that homosexuals’ only interest is in sex.
They added that other aspects of an individual’s personality tend to be ignored when sexual labels are applied, so such labels should be used carefully and with the understanding that the only basic difference between heterosexual and homosexual is in their preference of sexual partners. According to Davies & Janosik (1991), “our culture’s negative attitude toward homosexuality has been strongly influenced by religious teachings that hold homosexuality to be sinful and by psychoanalytical theory, which has traditionally held that homosexuality is an emotional disorder caused by psychosexual development”.
Most of the people have their own religions and because of this almost everyone views homosexuality as negative and is linked to committing a sin. As Davies & Janosik quoted, “homosexuality can be attributed to an unresolved masochistic attachment to the pre-oedipal mother, a distant relationship with the father, a defense against castration anxiety, or immature ego. The Origins of Sexual Orientation Diversity According to Money et.
al (2005), one of the prevailing questions raised regarding sexual orientation centers on its origin or cause; questions about the causes of sexual orientation are typically concerned with the origins of homosexuality and bisexuality. Because heterosexuality is considered normative and natural causes of heterosexuality are rarely considered. Much of the biomedical and psychological research on sexual orientation attempts to identify one or more causes of sexual orientation diversity. The driving question behind this research is, is sexual orientation inborn?
Or is it learned or acquired from environmental influences? While a number of factors have been correlated with sexual orientation, including genetic factors, gender role behavior in childhood, and fraternal birth order, there is no single theory that can explain diversity in sexual orientation (qtd. in Money et. al, 2005). Are There Gay Genes? The first hypothesis is called the “Balanced Superior Heterozygote Fitness”. This first sociobiological explanation sees human homosexuality as a function of unbalanced superior heterozygote fitness (qtd in Koertge, 1981).
According to Koertge (1981), since this explanation, like those to follow, presupposes some biological background knowledge, a sketch of such background is in order. The next hypothesis is “Homosexuality as a By-Product”. This hypothesis according to Koertge (1981) hardly merits the title “explanation”. In this hypothesis it is understand that homosexuality as a by product of or an incidental to, normal heterosexual development. Four Common Myths The first myth is the myth of the ten percent.
According to Glesne (2005), “ten percent of the adult population is homosexual” is a statistic that has become a normal part of America’s vocabulary which in reality is only about less than 3% of the population. Based on Glesne (2005), the figure is inextricably tied to the famous Kinsey studies; Alfred Kinsey was an entomologist at the University of Indiana who, in the 1940s and 1950s, chose to turn his scientific interest away from his primary field of training to the topic of human sexuality.
The second myth is that homosexuals are born that way. We have undoubted heard this one over and over again. In recent years the popular media has confidently proclaimed that scientist have reached a definite conclusion about sexual orientation; there is a gay gene responsible for it,” they say (Glesne, 2005). It is claimed that just as some people are born left-handed, certain people are born homosexual – since homosexuality is genetic, it is no longer a responsibility or fault.
Contrary to much popular opinion, no gay gene has been identified upto this time. The third myth is that homosexuals lead happy lives. This myth is so widespread that a majority of people believe it. Homosexual persons live with fear of being found out. The fourth myth is that homosexuals cannot change. According to this myth there is no hope that things can be different Actual Causes of Homosexuality and Numbers of Homosexuals
Although some claim to know what causes either homosexuality or heterosexuality, the origins of human sexual attraction remain an unresolved mystery (Winer, 2006). Based on Stewart (2003), two questions are repeatedly asked when the topic of homosexual is discussed: what causes homosexuality and how many people are gay and lesbian; these important questions according to Stewart are often a source of conflict between gay activists and the religious right, and are used to sway public opinions.
There are possible reasons or factors which affects homosexuality tendency. The first factor is negative dynamics in early relations in family life; these negative influences create certain kinds of pressures that first send young children down the path of developing a homosexual vulnerability, and then later, a homosexual orientation if some other things happen.
Glesne (2005) quoted, “some of the of the typical childhood factors leading to homosexuality are: feeling of being different from other children, perception of the father as being distant, uninvolved and unapproving, perception of mother being too close, too involved, diminished or distorted masculinity or femininity, premature introduction to sexuality, and gender confusion”. A second contributing factor is early homosexual experience with a trusted friend or a family member.
As it was quoted by Glesne (2005), it might be extremely general for a young man who has engaged in the company of an older man to tag himself as ‘homosexual’ for the reason that he has had a ‘homosexual-experience- and for the reason that he was seen to be ‘sexually-attractive’ by a man, and was added that, once he tag himself homosexual, the boy starts to behave constantly with the role and incline in the direction of ‘homosexual-activity’. A third factor which might have contributed is the influence of genetic predisposition.
This factor is the most difficult to substantiate concretely but there seems to be a substantial evidence for it. Based on Glesne (2005), there are studies on identical twins in particular which have illustrated that there may well be some genetic predisposition. We may be genetically influenced but we are not genetically determined; our genes don’t force us to do anything – we are not machines but rather significant human beings who have the ability to make responsible choices along the way. Homosexuality is neither innate nor unchangeable nor a “life-style choice” and changeable at will.
It is a result of a varied and mixed combination of genetic factors, gender confusion, family dysfunction, molestation and repeatedly reinforced choices occurring at critical phases of development.
Blasius, M. & Phelan, S. A. (1997). We are Everywhere: A Historical Sourcebook of Gay and Lesbian Politics. New York: Routledge. Davies, J. L. & Janosik, E. H. (1991). Mental Health and Psychiatric Nursing: A Caring Approach. New York: Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Glesne, D. N. (2005). Understanding Homosexuality: Perspective for the Living Church. New York: Kirk House Publishers. Koertge, N. (1981).
The Nature and Causes of Homosexuality: A Philosophic and Scientific Inquiry. New York: Haworth Press. Money, L. A. , Knox, D. & Schacht, C. (2005). Understanding Social Problems. New York: Thomson Wadsworth. Stewart, C. (2003). Gay and Lesbian Issues: A Reference Handbook. New York: ABC – CLIO. Winer, J. A. (2006). The Annual of Psychoanalysis: Rethinking Psychoanalysis and Homosexuality V. 30. New York: Routledge. http://books. google. com/books? id=Y2VPiDbYgjkC&printsec=frontcover&dq=homosexuality+subject:%22Religion+/+Sexuality+%26+Gender+Studies%22&lr=&as_brr=3&sig=i5dgMStT8B6XLTYJeaTnFif0jr8#PPA33,M1Sample Essay of PaperDon.com