Ideologies in the Arab world
The event of the 1967 war was considered as the final blow to the opponents through the oppositional constructs of pan-Arabism, which was promoted by Abdul Nasser and Ba’thists in order to unify Arabic nations. With this, almost every Arabic kingdoms of yesteryear (Algeria, Egypt, Sudan, Syria, Iraw, North Yemen) united with the goal of change under the new strong Islamic policy. According to Pipes (), through this, the development of Arabic union and the range of Islamic powers expanded (p. 285).
The Six Day War of 1967 had caused the increase of religious dedication among Islamic countries, which provided additional community support through vast numbers of civilians joining the armies. As according to New (), the defeat of Islamic countries, most significantly Egypt, had caused the politicization of religion among Arab countries (p. 166). The defeat of Arab nations during 1967 had caused the perception of humiliation and set-backs, and since then, Islam had become an ideology of political opposition and revolutionary aspiration.
On the other hand, the impact of the Iranian Revolution had caused the first mass-based non-Communist uprising as far as the records of the 20th century. After this war, the Muslim world had considered this as the beginning of the new glorious era in Islamic revolution. According to Nair (1997) from the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Iranian Revolution was only one indicator of generally universal revival of Islam as a major and international political force (p. 74). Hence, upon the rise of Islam’s political regime, another revolution occurred during the 1980s under the event of the Afghan uprising.
According to Goodson (), the Afghan-Soviet War during 1979 to 1989 was only the latest in a number of jihads in which Afghans had risen during the last 250 years (p. 18). The effects, however, of this war caused faction-formation (e. g. Taliban, Afghans, etc. ) that were united under one goal of Muslim ideology. The interrelationship between Afghan Islamic groups and Pakistani coordinators had caused the development of Islamic militias by fostering a web of personal and institutional relations among other Islamic groups, especially those victimized by Cold War and Islamic militancy.
According to Hussain (), the post-Afghan war had caused extensive development in the military forces of Afghan countries, which was from the financial aids and donations of supporting Muslim countries and Islamic personnel (p. 122). Considering the development of Islamic pacts among other Arab nations, right after the Afghan war, Saudi Arabia had reconsidered the further deepening of their pact with Pakistani Sunni client, which provided Afghan fighters and militant groups, such as Sipah-e-Sahaba-e-Pakistani (SSP).
These groups became very much active in Kashmir, and sooner after, they became under a new name, which was the Movement of Mujahedin from the provinces of Southern Afghanistan (Dossani and Rowen, 2005 p. 24). In addition, the events of the Afghan wars had caused the developments of Islamic military forces that provided the links and suspicion in the events of transnational terrorism brought to the United States by Osama bin Laden.
The occurrence of Afghan wars provided significant training ground for the militant Muslims for them to demonstrate their faith in the perspective of holy war, jihad. From then on, Iran became the foremost center of terrorism and foundations of its organization. Part II Discuss the internal and external factors leading to the rise of Islamic revivalism in the 19th century. Has Islamic resurgence been a force for revolutionary change in the Middle East of the 20th Century or has it been a force for conservativism and maintaining the status quo?
The events of Islamic revivalism were often considered as solely committed to the conversion of society to Islamic beliefs. Even from the concept of Islamic view, Islam revivalist movements, such as Jama’at-I Islami, or Islamic Party of Pakistan, brings forth their religious influence to political dispositions; hence, the ideology of revolution (e. g. jihad, etc. ) had been altered. Islamic Revivalism has been viewed as a prominent link between Islamic religion and Middle East politics during the 19th century.
According to Turner (2003), political interests play a more significant and central role in the unfolding of revivalism – even overriding the commitment to Islamization (p. 138). From the expansion of this trend in Middle East, the Islamic Revivalism that took place from 19th century up until today was termed as the Islamic law and government (Naim et. al. 1990, p. 135). From the contributor’s perspective, Mawlana Sayyid Abu’l-A’la Mawdudi’s life experience contributed to the rise and concepts of Islamic Revivalism.
With his creation of rationale Islamic conceptual foundations, which he integrated with the concepts of the state, had caused the breakthrough towards the belief of Islamic Revivalism. According to Nasr (1996), Mawdudi considered the conditions of Middle East, such as the lacking of Muslim’s political consensus, diverse division in Muslim society and the absence of united leadership, led to the development of Islamic revivalism wherein they viewed that the problem in society can be resolved through the incorporation of Islamic religion (p. 4).
For example in Egypt, article 2 of the 1971 constitution states that the principles of shari’a, which was part of Islamic religion, were a major source of legislation (Naim et. al. 1990, p. 135). Islamic thinkers, like Mawdudi, had viewed the need to enhance Islamic commitment among Middle East nations in order to overcome the crisis of their revolutionary acclaims. In addition, the Islamic revival had been fostered in Islamic academia most significantly during the 1980s wherein the concepts of religion and politics were being integrated and taught to students.
Right after the Afghan wars, the issues on political-religious revolution through jihad were already being plotted, and with the popularity of Islamic revivalism spreading across the country, the prejudicial assumption that Islamic revivalism might become an international threat had caused the shifts of revolutionary perspective (Dalymar, 1999 p. 106). Islamic revivalism had caused in the intensification of revolutionary perspective of the 20th century through forced teachings and incorporation of Islamic virtues and concepts that endeavors the need for a believer to sacrifice for the sake of their revolutionary goals.
Although, Islamic revivalism, an interpretation of Islam that centers on a narrow concept of Islamic law and predicates salvation on gaining control of political power, had profound impact on the relation between religion and politics (Keddie, 2002 p. 327). From this point of view, Islamic revivalist movement had gained their task of spreading the laws and religious need that could save the society from negation of populism and affirmation of conservativism.
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