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Immigration in the United States

Immigration refers to the moving out of people from their own respective country of origin towards another place. Today, immigration is said to be valid granted that it is classified as long-term and legal. For tourists who are short-term visitors of a country, they are considered non-immigrants. Migration is one of the reasons why the population growth of a country increases. Many non-U. S. citizens have migrated to the United States throughout its history, causing changes in the local population which has been affected both positively and negatively.

There are also changes with the policies and bylaws about immigration in the United States. Both the recipient and host country are positively affected by immigration. More people settle for countries that are industrialized such as countries located in Western Europe or the United States. Immigrants also offer various benefits to the recipient country. Many immigrants will do jobs that people in the host country cannot or will not do. Meanwhile, once an immigrant feels the hostility from the host county, it can contribute to the diversity of that society, which can help with tolerance and understanding.

The talent pool of the host country is also increased because of the immigrants. Despite the numerous advantages immigration offers, it also has numerous drawbacks for the immigrants themselves, the country of origin, and country of destination. For one, many immigrants are often exploited for cheap labor; they work for longer hours but receive lower salaries. In the history of United States, for example, many Asian immigrants, specifically Chinese, Japanese, and Filipinos, were recruited from the mid 18th century to World War II period for the railroad, agricultural, textile, and services industries (Lowe 12).

Most of them held positions that required manual labor. The country of origin also suffers from brain drain, a term which refers to the “outflow of highly qualified and talented manpower which has been trained at considerable expense in one country and which migrates permanently to another” (Sukhatme 1). At present, many trained professionals move out of their country because of the poor economic condition which limits their opportunities to earn a high income. Thus, they migrate to a wealthier country which can pay them higher (Sukhatme 1).

Immigrants are also often victims of racial discrimination. They are also led to become involved in elements of crime like drug trafficking, and other forms of corruption. Concerns about illegal immigration can spill over to ill-feelings towards the majority of immigrants who are law-abiding and contributing to the economy. People are said to move from one country to the United States because of complex reasons. Some wanted to escape persecution and prejudices from their own countries while others voluntarily go to the United States to find better opportunities or earn more.

In some cases, immigration is necessary but it can also be traumatic. On the other hand, it can also be viewed as an act of courage. Moving to the United States means adapting to American culture and sets of norms. Immigrants also have to fight loneliness and homesickness upon migrating. They also experience more pressure upon moving to another country because they need to earn more and adjust their budgets. As many of the immigrants come from developing countries, their cost of living is lower in their own country than in the U. S.

Thus, they have to adjust so as to survive. United States is one of the most populated countries by immigrants from various countries. Individuals and families are said to be attracted living in the US because they wanted to improve their way of living. Immigrants are mostly fed up of their own country’s situation and decided to go on a much better place. Seeing more opportunities for residents of the U. S. motivates immigrants to settle in this country for good. This brought about changes both in demographic and culture throughout the history of the United States.

Immigration caused too much conflict involving religion, economy, health, education, crime rates, moral values and job employments. Among any other countries in the world, United States is said to accept more and more immigrants as permanent citizens. According to an online article about Frequently Requested Statistics on Immigrants in the United States (Terrazas, Vatalova and Fan): Of the 37. 5 million foreign born in the United States in 2006, 44. 1 percent entered the country prior to 1990, 30. 5 percent between 1990 and 1999, and 25. 3 percent in 2000 or later. Policies on Immigration

During March of last year, some of the proposals for policies on immigration were granted as laws and a border of limitations was set in some cities in the U. S. There are laws indicating that police are banned to question people from other countries about their immigrant statuses. Some of the cities included in the said policy are New York, Los Angeles, Oregon, Portland, Maine, Miami, Minneapolis and Washington D. C. However, recently, a policy has been proposed suggesting that illegal immigrants be punished accordingly like criminals do. This proposal has become the current subject of debate between the citizens and the U.

S. Congress. After the World Trade bombing last September 11, 2001, the local population has been alarmed and wanted to restrict immigrants from coming over to the United States. 20 percent of Americans who answered the Gallup poll answered that they wanted a tighter control among immigrants (Grieco). This will ensure the safety and security of the country according to the local population. There are many surveys answered by Americans which suggest that they see both good and bad effects of immigration. Majority of Americans also sees legal immigration as a positive outlook than illegal immigration.

According to the Pew Research Center, when a survey is conducted based on race, African Americans are willing to extend government services to illegal immigrants but they are more worried about competition for jobs (Motavalli). Presently, the government closely monitors and thoroughly screens applicants before granting them an immigrant status. This careful process is conducted to ensure that no more related cases of bombing like the event of September 11 would occur. The said event made the local population more sensitive of the cases of Immigration in the United States.

More Americans are said to go against massive immigration because the country may end up being colonized by foreigners. Immigration in the US at Different Times Immigration rate in the United States has changed over time. In the year 1900, the U. S. has a population of approximately 76 million. 500,000 of the said population are Hispanics (Borjas). After 30 years (1930) the number of immigrants rose to 250, 000 more. In the 1950s, there are 2. 5 million immigrants. This figures increased to 4. 5 million in the 1970s, and in 1980s, 7. 3 million immigrants are staying in the U. S.

The ‘90s came and the number of immigrants reached 10 million. Since 2000, there are approximately 1,000,000 immigrants per year, of which only 600, 000 are said to be classified as legal immigrants (Borjas). The factors that speed up the increased in immigrant rates include education and work related activities. Most immigrants are students who strive to have better education and more job opportunities in the future study in the U. S. High compensation from employers also attracts immigrants to settle permanently in the United States (Borjas). Immigration and the Economy, Politics, and Society

Local population views immigration differently according to different fields. It has both negative and positive effects in the economy of the United States. Taxes are paid differently by immigrants and non-immigrants. This is viewed by the local population as a negative effect to the US economy because immigrants pay lower taxes than those of native workers. On the other hand, other people from the local population view this positively because it adds up to the productivity of businesses (Suarez-Orosco 41). Local workers are against hiring immigrants workers because they are taking jobs that should be for the true blooded Americans.

According to James Smith who wrote a report entitled “The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration,” there is a distinction between immigrant workers and Americans in terms of work and wages. It also addresses the question of how immigration affected the population: While some have suspected that blacks suffer disproportionately from the inflow of low-skilled immigrants, none of the available evidence suggests that they have been particularly hard-hit on a national level. Some have lost their jobs, especially in places where immigrants are concentrated.

But the majority of blacks live elsewhere, and their economic fortunes are tied to other factors (Smith) Immigrants have different views with regards to politics. However, majority of immigrants still goes for the Democratic Party (Smith). Meanwhile, some of the Native Americans perceive the effects of immigration in terms of social relations as good, while the others view them as negative. For instance, Americans are said to be afraid of being colonized by other races and so the immigration of Irish people were hindered during 1850s.

In addition, a large occupancy of immigrants was banned after the Immigration Act of 1924 was passed. This bill restricted Eastern and Southern Europeans to enter the United States in large numbers. After the World War II, racism has become a huge issue because of this policy. The theory of power in the society is considerably important for the local population. This causes them to be racist thinkers. One notable event about racism is the feud between Koreans and the blacks in 1992 also known as the Los Angeles Riots (Smith). Immigration and Health

Health issues are also factors affecting local population when it comes to immigration. The cost of public health services used by both legal and illegal immigrants is equal to those being received by Americans. Nevertheless, research shows that local population receives higher health advantage than immigrants. Immigrants have disproportionately low access to healthcare and underutilize the healthcare system (Brown et al. ). The United States public health system comes out with various disputes on the immigrants cost of health services.

In spite of this, more privilege are said to be received by the local population than those received by the immigrants. In a study made by economist and scholar, Julian Lincoln Simon, he concluded in 1995 that although immigrants generally pay more into the health system than they receive, this is not likely the case for elderly immigrants and many refugees, who are more dependent on public services for survival. The outburst of diseases like tuberculosis has become one of the reasons why local population disapproves immigration.

The Center for Disease and Control Prevention (CDC) found out that most cases of tuberculosis emerges from foreign born individuals. It is nearly nine times the rate of U. S. -born persons. The possible solution viewed by Americans on this problem is to screen the immigrants upon arrival. However, immigrants in general are said to be healthier than the individuals born in the U. S. in terms of mental health and nutrition. Immigration and Religion Religion is also viewed by the local population as one of the most affected area by immigration. The feud between Muslims and other religion is one good example of this.

After the attack of World Trade Center, people from the Middle East are more likely to experience discrimination in the United States. Immigration and Crime Immigration and crime are also linked by the local population. Many Americans doubt immigrants and see them as someone who has a higher tendency to do criminal acts. This is opposed by Sociology Professor Robert J. Sampson in his Op-Ed in the New York Times. According to Sampson, immigration can be associated with decreased crime (Salvi). Involvement in crimes by immigrants is lower than expected by the citizens.

This can be attributed to the fact that immigrants are more conscious of the law. The fear of being jailed and being deported back to their home country causes immigrants to be law abiding citizens of the U. S. In contrast, Americans are five times more likely to commit crimes than legal and illegal immigrants (Salvi). However there are instances when immigrants become involved in crime-related activities due to some reasons. They take the opportunity of being in a foreign country and treat everything as a privilege to the extent that they become blind of the laws that should be followed.

Being part of gangs is one great example of criminal activities by immigrants. The rate of street gangs rises because of immigrant members. New immigrants are more likely to be involved and recruited into a gang. They are easily influenced because of language barriers, employment difficulties, support, protection, and fear (Salvi). Immigration and the Environment Environmental problems increase because of immigration. This includes issues involving water, energy and other environmental resources. The law of supply and demand in terms of sources gathered from the environment greatly affects its depletion.

Currently, at least 1. 8 million legal and illegal immigrants settle in the U. S. which can cause more possible harm on the environment. Population pressure is also at risk when it comes to water supplies in some areas in the U. S. Population in the state of California continues to grow more than a half million a year and it could reach up to 48 million in 2030. A water shortfall is expected when the number of population continues to increase. According to the California Department of Water Resources, if water supplies are not discovered comes the year 2020, chaos is expected in water consumption (Salvi).

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