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This is a claim of fact. I will present medical evidence from reliable source that children born to mothers who are addicted to heroin are more likely to have low birth weights, more neurological complications and higher mortality rates than those born to a non-addicted mother. The paper will illustrated that first two factors may contribute to the third factor as do other abnormalities associated with children born to heroin addicts. The thesis statement is a direct statement of fact, but it implies a value judgment that infant mortality, low birth weight and neurological disorders are unfavorable results.

THESIS PARAGRAPH: Mothers who are addicted to heroin while pregnant reduce their likelihood of becoming mothers at all. Woman who are addicted while pregnant often have babies who face severe nerve damage, including trembling, poor motor development and the inability to suck properly to get food. Because heroin is a natural appetite suppressant, women who take heroin while pregnant often do not get proper nutrition resulting in babies with unhealthy birth weights. The combination of neurological disorders, low birth weight and other birth defects associated with heroin-use often lead to the death of the infant.

Women who use heroin while pregnant ate more likely to have babies with neurological disorders, unhealthily low birth weights and a higher than average infant mortality rate. SUBCLAIMS: 1. Extremely low birth weight is unhealthy. 2. Children born to heroin-addicted women often experience tremors, restlessness and insomnia. 3. Insomnia, tremors and restlessness are clinical observations which indicate damage to the central nervous system. 4. Heroin is a narcotic, which suppresses the appetite. 5. Heroin-addicted babies often have trouble sucking and cannot eat properly.

Here is an additional source dealing with CNS damage from heroin usage in the mother. File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat – View as HTML neurological impairment in the infant can occur with the ingestion of only one ounce of alcohol per …. Heroin addicted babies will begin to experience … www. uen. org/Lessonplan/downloadFile. cgi? file=4018-6-8857-complications_of_pregnancy. pdf&filename=comp… “Problems/Complications in Pregnancies NARCOTICS: heroin and methadone are both narcotics, but have properties which effect the pregnant woman and the fetus differently.

Heroin is an appetite suppressant, and pregnant women on heroin often have babies who are small for gestational age. Babies born of mothers who conceived on methadone or who were maintained on methadone soon after conception tend to be larger than those of heroin-using mothers. Heroin is a shorter acting drug than methadone, and this difference affects the onset, duration, and intensity of withdrawal. Heroin addicted babies will begin to experience withdrawal with 4-24 hours after delivery. Methadone dependent babies may show symptoms of withdrawal anywhere from the end of the first day to two weeks postpartum; the average time for onset of methadone withdrawal is 72 hours after delivery. Many infants born to mothers who are maintained at 20 mg of methadone or less and who are not using other drugs may not, in fact, demonstrate visible signs of narcotic withdrawal.

Methadone withdrawal tends to be less intense than heroin withdrawal, but may last longer. In addition, while heroin withdrawal typically escalates and then abates in a stepwise fashion, methadone withdrawal can be biphasic, appearing subdued at times and then becoming more intense.

Neonatal Narcotic Abstinence Syndrome includes the following characteristics: central nervous system (CNS), hyperirritability, gastrointestinal dysfunction, including regurgitation and diarrhea, respiratory distress, and vague autonomic symptoms of yawning, mottling, sneezing, and fever. The hallmarks of the CNS irritability are: tremors, hypertonicity, hyperreflexia, restlessness, insomnia, increased sucking reflex but difficulty in coordinating sucking and swallowing, and a high pitched cry. While narcotic withdrawal in adults is typically not life threatening, narcotic withdrawal in infants can be.

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