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Patriotism and Sacrifices

I offer neither pay, nor quarters, nor food; I offer only hunger, thirst, forced marches, battles and death. Let him who loves his country with his heart, and not merely with his lips, follow me. – Giuseppe Garibaldi Introduction One of the more important points made by Trevelyan in the book is in Chapter II when he had stated that a new nation cannot rely solely on its statement but rather, it requires the sacrifice of thousands of obscure men and women who values the making of their nation more than personal interest and what they get from it (Trevelyan, 1911; 31).

This is essentially the principle that upholds and makes Garibaldi survive through the battles he had made and made him as one of the most famous military and patriotic man in Italy. His ability to inspire and motivate people to join his cause without neither promises for personal good and the fulfillment of interest but through raw patriotism- the vision of joining North and South Italy for the sake of their descendants.

Drawing from an earlier volume of his own work, Trevelyan’s Garibaldi and the Making of Italy takes us into one of the darkest times in Italy when the nation is besieged not by peace and prosperity that Italians are experiencing now. Trevelyan opens the readers’ eyes on the complexity of uniting and making a nation out of Italy in an era of wars, battles, sacrifices and death. This paper argues that Trevelyan provided readers with a historically sound, informative and an objective account of Garibaldi and the Making of Italy.

While most history books and its details would bore readers, The Making of Italy provides a more interesting presentation though at times the details which are needed would be too much for the general public. Essentially, this is an academic book that is most fitted for students of history and social sciences. Garibaldi and the Making of Italy: Summary of Points A continuation of the previous volume by Trevelyan’s Garibaldi and the Thousand, Garibaldi and the Making of Italy was written by Trevelyan in order to show the contribution of Garibaldi from the victories of the Thousand until the formation of Italy.

Spanned through 15 chapters and 394 pages, Trevelyan started with the capture of Palermo in Naples, Paris, Turin and London and ended the book with the last two chapters devoted on the meeting of Garibaldi on Victor Emmanuel and the return to Caprera. Essentially, as the author had explained, Garibaldi and the Making of Italy does not cover the whole life of Garibaldi but rather focused on his contributions to Italy until his death. The book started in the 1860s when Palermo was captured through the brilliant military machinations of Garibaldi and spanned through his death in Caprera in June 2, 1882.

In the first chapter when Garibaldi has successfully captured Palermo and his military had grown from a mere one thousand to twenty five thousand men, Garibaldi is already known for his success in even the most difficult battles. The destruction of Palermo by General Lanza and the end of the armistice had resulted to the leaving of the Neopolitan troops and in protecting the town from further ruins, surrendered to Garibaldi. At this time, the unity of South and North Italy had been one of the most hotly debated topics.

The complexity of the process had both opponents and proponents of a united Italy in constant battles. The second Chapter started with the inability of the king to create unity among the people who did not trust the Bourbon faith. The enthusiasm among North Italians who had proven themselves in battle was immediately washed out because of the treacheries and betrayals that further led to the seeming hopelessness of the unity. With the victory of Garibaldi on the Battle of Calatafimi, he declared himself to be the Dictator of Sicily.

Concurrently, in the third and fourth Chapters, Garibaldi’s return for the reconstruction of Palermo was made in order to prepare for his next battle. Suffice it to say, Garibaldi’s battles in Palermo were supported by the populace. In Chapters 4 and 5, after his success in Palermo, Garibaldi and his troops emerged as victors in the Battle of Milazzo by July through the reinforcements he had gotten from Italy. Around this time, the formidable force of Garibaldi together with almost 20,000 North Italians under his command crossed the Straits going to Calabria in Chapter 6 and 7.

The race to Naples through the crossing of the Strait began along with the army of about 10,000 enemies racing against them. Upon the arrival of Garibaldi in Calabria, Garibaldi was hailed by the people. Upon the successful entry of Garibaldi and his troops in Naples, the people had been rejoicing for their forthcoming freedom and liberation. However, Trevelyan’s account also provided an account of the mistakes made by Garibaldi in Chapter 9. The miscalculations of Garibaldi on the strength and fervor of the Bourbon army for instance had costed him one step backwards towards their mission.

Chapter 11 provided an inquisitive account of the Battle of Castelfidardo and the Fall of Ancona. In this monumental battle, the troops of the Pope were defeated by the Piedmont Army and the fall of Ancona in September 28 ensued. The Battle of the Volturno can be considered to be one of the most important battles of Garibaldi against the Kingdom of Two Sicilies in September-October 1860s. After the successful conquest of Garibaldi on Sicily and almost all of South Italy, the clash between the two armies became inevitable and ended in the battle at Volturno river.

In a series of battles that saw Garibaldi’s Expedition of Thousand defeated, Garibaldi and Medici reinforced their army and successfully pushed back the Neopolitans. In the two last Chapters of the book, we see Garibaldi handing over Italy to Victor Emmanuel signaling the unification of Italy. Garibaldi’s humility in surrendering his conquests to Victor Emmanuel stems from his belief that Victor Emmanuel was a man of honor and that Victor Emmanuel was raised by the Providence for the liberation of Italy. Accordingly, he left his dictatorial power and left it to the stateman in Victor Emmanuel.

Rationale for the Writing of the Garibaldi It is often that those in the forefront in the unification of Italy are the ones who are considered to be heroes and the principal figures- the likes of Victor Emmanuel became the leading figures in Italian history yet generals like Garibaldi are reduced to the sidelines and assume the role of being the ones who did the dirty works. First, Trevelyan presented us not only of a historical account of the unification of Italy but also an account of Garibaldi’s heroism and contribution to the making of Italy.

While the tone of Trevelyan had largely been objective and often critical of the events, including the decisions of Garibaldi that he deems to be inaccurate or a miscalculation, Trevelyan’s presentation is largely patriotic through his explorations of the philosophies of Garibaldi. For instance, while Trevelyan can be said to admire the dedication, passion and the seeming abandonment of personal interest of Garibaldi, the miscalculations and often overconfidence of Garibaldi on the Thousand and himself had cost them some important drawbacks in history.

Second, the book addresses the question of how events have unfolded in the unification of Italy to serve as a lesson to present statesmen and military men. While this book is academic in nature, it cannot be denied that the importance of the battles, the organizational and leadership skills and the rigor to which battles were won can help in organizing and in rallying armies in order to achieve their objectives. Hence, the lessons of history can serve as the guide in preventing mistakes from occurring particularly among government officials, the military and even small organizations.

Third, Trevelyan provides the younger generation of Italians an inspirational piece in order to appreciate the hardships, sacrifices and the honor by which their ancestors had fought in order to give them the kind of life that they have right now. Thus, this book was written by the author with the goal not only of historical analysis but also to serve as a book that would open and provide better understanding among the young Italians to appreciate history and the people such as Garibaldi. Suffice it to say, most people in this generation no longer read history books nor appreciate the important personalities in their country.

This book was written to serve as a reminder that there are more interesting personalities in history than what we have in cyberspace and these are personalities that are of substance. Fourth, the book was written to awaken the patriotism of Italians to look into their national identity. In an era where national boundaries and cultural boundaries are being brought down, the essence of one’s historical culture can make the people grounded on what they are made of. In essence, Trevelyan was successful in stirring emotional and spiritual reflection on what made people in Italy as Italians.

Basing from these rationales for the writing of the book, it is safe to assume that Trevelyan would seek to defend the military tactics and beliefs of Garibaldi. While it is easy to understand that violence would most likely be universally attacked to by people in democratic states such as Italy, the means by which Garibaldi used which is military force and disregard for people in order to serve the higher end of societal preservation and good becomes a reflective piece for the reader. Indeed, placing society above one’s personal interests seems to be a strange idea nowadays.

However, Trevelyan defends that at one point, people like Garibaldi would have to do what they have to do in order to unite Italy. Consequently, the central theme of the book is that there is a need for people in a given society to sacrifice at some point in order to attain a higher good for the people- not necessarily for the present generation but of our descendants. Important Characters in Garibaldi and the Making of Italy Giuseppe Mazzini (1805-1872) Mazzini was an advocate of nationalism and a supporter Republicanism, believed that Italy could be united through uprising.

Thus, he promoted revolution and encouraged the citizens to organize revolts. He continued his opposition to the authority through his writings and he also pursued his initiatives through exile. Mazzini is considered an important figure in in the history of Italy is ideological for he fashioned the political idea that Italy could achieve national unification through social and political reforms. Agostino Bertani (1812-1886) Bertani, a physician and a surgeon in the Austro-Sardinian War (1859) for the corps of Garibaldi, collaborated with Mazzini and Garibaldi for their aim to liberate Italy.

He contributed strategies in attacking Sicily and Naples (March of the Thousand) and became Garibaldi’s secretary general in September 1860 after the occupation of Naples. He also contributed in the reconstruction of the Italy and founded La Riforma, a journal advocating social reforms. He lead the chamber’s extreme left in 1861 whose hostile system as opposition lasted for a long time. Conte di Cavour (1810-1861) Cavour strengthened the Piedmontese army and negotiated with Napoleon III as an alliance to conquer Nice and Savoy as a means of helping French from northern Italy.

He also collaborated with Cavour and Giuseppe Garibaldi in 1859 to make reforms throughout Italy by secretly encouraging revolutions. He remained close to Garibaldi. However, Cavour believed in the importance of the role of the Church but he wanted to keep Italy in tact. Victor Emmanuel II (1820–1878) Victor Emmanuel II was the first king of Italy after the unification in 1861 under the house of Savoy. He entered the army but became a liberalist so he resigned in 1831 and devoted his life in traveling, pursuing his studies in politics, and working on agricultural experimentation. The Significance of Garibaldi to Italy

As a young boy, Garibaldi can be seen to be inspired and dedicated to the idea of a unified Italy- while most biography and historical books would treat Garibaldi as nothing more than a character in history, Trevelyan opens the readers eyes to the kind of patriotism and the principles that made up the muscles of the Italian army in Garibaldi. First, Garibaldi was not only the leader of Thousands but also the heart and soul of the revolution for the unification. While it is the statesmen of Italy who have taken on the center stage and decided on political front, it was Garibaldi who had won battles for the country.

These battles represents more than the usual blood and deaths of people but rather a sacrifice in every person, in every death and the killing of a fellow Italian in order to push the cause of the revolution. The heart coupled with the principles by Garibaldi was inspiring so that his 1,000 army became almost 30,000 by the end of his battles. Second, Garibaldi served as an inspiration and had kept the burning torch of unification burning. He served as an inspiration and as a symbol of hope for the people.

For one, his entry into a territory inspires people to cheer and rekindle hope- the end of battles and the start of peace seem to start upon his arrival to territories. Such is the fate and the hope that he sparkle from the people. This is in contrast with the prevailing distrust of people on the political leaders and figures of the time that had betrayed and disillusioned them with promises. Garibaldi represented the hope for action and the one who had moved them to act for the benefit of the unification. Third, Garibaldi’s handing of Italy to Victor Emmanuel signifies the end of wars and the start of a unified Italy.

Most military dictators such as Hitler and other military dictators were so consumed by power that it was hard for them to let it go. However, true to his cause Garibaldi succumbed his role after he believed that he has already lived up to his cause. The humility and the sense of principle that upheld Garibaldi showed the patriotism and the compassion he had for Italy neither receiving or asking for any reward at the end of his career, can he be considered to be one of the few silent patriots and heroes of Italy who neither coveted the fame nor the money that came as a reward for heroism.

Analysis Garibaldi and the Making of Italy represents a departure from earlier books that accounts Garibaldi as merely a historical figure responsible for the battles won for the cause of Italy. Trevelyan did not only give us with accurate and detailed historical account but also an unbiased and objective analysis of the exploits and the victories and defeats of Garibaldi. Trevelyan neither portrayed Garibaldi as a hero or as a military robot but rather, a principled and patriotic man who is fighting for the cause of unifying Italy.

For the provision of the philosophical and the presentation of the principles of Garibaldi, Trevelyan’s account provided a holistic and interesting view of Garibaldi as a man and as a general. For instance, his account of Giraldi’s handing of Italy of Victor Emmanuel and his refusal to receive honor was made in such conciseness that one can immediately feel the gravity of the act done. In conclusion, Garibaldi and the Making of Italy is a must read not only for scholars but for Italians whether it be for academic, patriotic or leisure purposes.

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