Personality Traits And Psychology - Best Essay Writing Service Reviews Reviews | Get Coupon Or Discount 2016
Free Essays All Companies All Writing Services

Personality Traits and Psychology

The results show that there are some personal traits which are interrelated with others while others are not. There are both positive and negative relationships. According to the findings, novelty seeking is positively correlated with reward dependence, persistence, self- transcendence, e-scale, p-scale, neuroticism, extraversion and openness. On the other hand, it has a negative relationship with harm avoidance, self-directedness, cooperativeness, n-scale, agreeableness and conscientiousness.

The explanation that can be associated with these findings is that someone who is very much interested in innovation and trying new things possesses those attributes that will help him or her to be aggressive. The attributes are also linked to an open-mind that will enable him or her to handle emerging challenges. A person who avoids harm tends to be cooperative, avoids situation that will lead to his or her emotional instability, is somehow open and conforms to what is proposed by others.

That is why harm avoidance as given by the results has a significant positive relationship with these attributes and is negatively related to novelty seeking, reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, e-scale, p-scale, extraversion and conscientiousness. Someone who avoids being hurt will not want to take up activities that are closely associated with high risks. They want things the easy way without much hustling hence the relationships demonstrated between the attributes.

Rewards dependence has a positive relationship with novelty seeking, persistence, self-directedness, cooperativeness, self-transcendence, e-scale, neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness. Alternatively it has a negative relationship with p-scale and harm avoidance with totally no relationship with n-scale. Therefore, reward dependence seeks an optimistic mind so as to achieve the intended goal against all odds. In addition, different dimensions of reward dependence and neuroticism do not affected one another in any way.

Persistence has a positive interrelationship with novelty seeking, reward dependence, self directedness, cooperativeness, self-transcendence, e-scale, n-scale, neuroticism, extraversion and conscientiousness. On the other hand, it has a negative interrelationship with agreeableness, openness, harm avoidance and p-scale. A persistent person therefore needs to be committed and should possess an intense driving force, that will help him or her in attaining what he or she desires. A placid person is not persistent enough.

Self-directedness is negatively influenced by novelty seeking, harm avoidance, openness, neuroticism, e-scale, n-scale and p-scale. It has a positive relationship with reward dependence, persistence, cooperativeness, self-transcendence, extraversion, conscientiousness and agreeableness. This is a clear indication that a person with the trait of self-directedness is ready to take up whatever risks and does not rely on views from other people in executing his actions. In addition, a person with self-directedness is cautious as indicated by its positive relationship with conscientiousness as opposed to novelty seeking and openness.

Cooperativeness has a positive relationship with harm avoidance, reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, self-transcendence, e-scale, extraversion, agreeableness, openness and conscientiousness. It is negatively influenced by novelty seeking, n-scale, p-scale and neuroticism. Cooperation therefore requires positive attributes that will result or yield in positive results only. Attributes that are likely to result in negative implications have a negative correlation with it.

Self-transcendence has a positive significant correlation with novelty seeking, openness, reward dependence, persistence, cooperativeness, self-directedness, n-scale, neuroticism, extraversion and agreeableness. It is negatively influenced by harm avoidance, e-scale, p-scale and conscientiousness. Self-transcendence requires one to be aggressive and will therefore not be supported by negative feelings and being to skeptical about an issue. The e-scale has a positive correlation with novelty seeking, reward dependence, persistence, cooperativeness, p-scale, extraversion and openness.

Harm avoidance, self-directedness, self-transcendence, n-scale, neuroticism and agreeableness are negatively related to e-scale. There is no relationship whatsoever between e-scale and conscientiousness. A person who is unstable in relation to extraversion will be supported by an open mind that is governed by something like a reward as fear and skepticism will make him or her less outgoing and sociable. N-scale has a positive relationship with harm avoidance, persistence, self-transcendence, neuroticism and openness.

It has a negative relationship with novelty seeking, self-directedness, cooperativeness, e-scale, p-scale, extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness. There is no relationship whatsoever between n-scale and reward dependence. N-scale requires one to be dedicated to winning and appreciate that changes that come along. Neuroticism has a positive relationship with novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, persistence, self-transcendence, n-scale and openness. It has a negative relationship with self-directedness, cooperativeness, n-scale, agreeableness and conscientiousness.

Neuroticism is the average of the n-scale and a person with neuroticism ventures into new things with caution and with then intention of being successful. Such a person does not conform to what others say and is directed by the reward he or she aims at achieving. P-scale is positively related to novelty seeking, e-scale, extraversion and openness. It has a negative relationship with harm avoidance, reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, cooperativeness, n-scale, self-transcendence, neuroticism, agreeableness and conscientiousness.

Different levels of psychoticism reveal that one ventures into new things without being too careful and thoughtful. This person is not goal oriented and is just adventurous. Extraversion has a positive relationship with novelty seeking, reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, cooperativeness, self-transcendence, e-scale, p-scale, openness and conscientiousness. It has a negative relationship with harm avoidance, n-scale, neuroticism and agreeableness. An extravert is not afraid of getting engaged in new undertakings, is goal oriented and does not have time for negativity.

Openness is positively related to novelty seeking, reward dependence, cooperativeness, self-transcendence, e-scale, n-scale, p-scale, neuroticism, extraversion and agreeableness. It has a negative relationship with self-directness and conscientiousness. An open person is open-minded and is aggressive enough so as to emerge as the best person among all the others. Agreeableness has a positive relationship with reward dependence, harm avoidance, self-directedness, cooperativeness, self-transcendence, openness and conscientiousness.

It is related to novelty seeking, persistence, e-scale, n-scale, p-scale, neuroticism and extraversion in a negative way. An agreeable person adjusts easily to new things and environment, and is calm. Conscientiousness has a positive relationship with reward dependence, persistence, self-directedness, cooperativeness, extraversion and agreeableness. It has a negative relationship with novelty seeking, harm avoidance, self-transcendence, n-scale, p-scale, neuroticism and openness.

A conscientious person is disciplined and very thoughtful while executing any action. He is relaxed and does not like recognition as what governs his actions is a goal. He or she takes up a task that he or she is sure of completing successfully. An example of such a person is the mere employees who execute their duties and responsibilities with cooperation and conformity without the aim of standing out from the rest. The varimax rotation has been used to bring out the traits that are closely related together by looking at the variance of the squared loadings.

The five factor analysis as shown above has been adopted to group the different personal traits into five broad groups based on the significant of the loadings. Personal traits that are similar have been put together. For instance, reward dependence, self-directedness and cooperativeness are factor number three and all of them are associated with a common goal. Variance is used to affirm the alternate hypothesis. There is inequality of variance of mean for the n-scale as depicted by a significant value of less than 0. 05. Therefore, there is a very significant difference in the means with regard to gender.

The neuroticism dimension appears to be more inclined on one gender type as compared with the other. Therefore, it is an indication that either men or women are more susceptible to neuroticism dimension. Since the other attributes are not characterized by unequal variance of mean, it is true to say that there is no significant difference in the means with regard to gender hence; gender is independent of all the other traits. Variance is also important when trying to find out if there is a significant difference of the personal traits with regard to the age.

The analysis of variance (ANOVA), whereby the equality of variance is of great concern reveals that there is a significant difference with regard to age. Different age groups will reveal certain personal traits more than others. This is indicated by a significant variance value of less than 0. 05 after testing equality of variance by the use of the F-test. The personal traits that indicate this difference are novelty seeking, self-transcendence, extraversion, p-scale, e-scale, agreeableness and conscientiousness.

References Attached dissertation. Boneau, C. A. (1960), “The effects of violations of assumptions underlying the t test”, Psychological Bulletin, 57, 49-64. Edgell, S. E. , & Noon, S. M. (1984), “Effect of violation of normality on the t test of the correlation coefficient”, Psychological Bulletin, 95, 576-583. Kagan, A. and Shepp, L. A. (1998). “Why the variance? ” Statistics and Probability Letters, 38, 329–333. Navidi, W. (2006). Statistics for Engineers and Scientists. McGraw-Hill.

Sample Essay of Paperial.com