Planning for the future
History plays an important role in understanding the present and in planning for the future. The contributions of notable personalities in the past is very essential as it could help in explaining the phenomena that are happening in the current society and it also served as the basis for further studies. This kind of adage could be exemplified by the Communist Manifesto that is written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. The Communist Manifesto is recognized as one of the most notable piece of writing that embodies the beliefs and principles of the Communist Party.
The importance of the contents of the Communist Manifesto is still applicable up to this present time as it describes some characteristics of the phenomenon of Globalization that exists in the society today. In this sense, the Communist Manifesto still very applicable at this current time especially since when it comes to Marx and Engels discussion of the Global Culture. In relation to these, their idea of the global culture could be compared with the 21st century perspective about this subject like the concept of “convergence culture” of Henry Jenkins.
Being the case, the Communist Manifesto and Jenkins’ convergence culture as well as other related writings regarding Globalization should be given due attention and importance as it is something that affects the very way of life in the society nowadays. In connection to these, it is the main objective of this paper to discuss the idea of globalization. In doing so, the succeeding paragraphs will give a brief definition of globalization. Afterwards, the paper will look at how Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels were able to predict the emergence of a global culture from the Communist Manifesto that they written.
Then, it will look at the perspective of Henry Jenkins’ convergence culture and another related reading namely: Chris Anderson’s “Long Tail” that also discusses the idea of global culture as well as new technologies. Furthermore, the paper will focus on the relation between the view of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels of global culture and the understanding of Henry Jenkins about this matter with his discussion of the convergence culture as well as with the other reading.
Lastly, an analysis will be conducted regarding the implications of convergence and participatory culture in connection with the establishment of national identities during this time of globalization. It will also give due attention to the relationship between the mass and the particular in global culture. Definition of Globalization Globalization is defined as the “process of interaction and integration among people, companies, and governments of different nations, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology” (Boudreaux 1).
In this meaning of globalization, the author who created it give particular attention in the greater relationship of people and governments from different countries wherein they tend to interact more with each other because of trade. However, even though the definition focuses on trade as it is one of the most notable features of globalization, it also talked about the interaction of people that is aided through information technology.
This facilitates greater communication as well as easier flow of information among people in the different parts of the world. Nevertheless, the effects of globalization are still something that is widely debated upon whether it is indeed beneficial or detrimental to society. Predictions of a Global Culture in the Communist Manifesto One of the first descriptions of global culture that could be found in the Communist Manifesto is the emergence of greater interaction among countries especially when it comes to trade.
Marx and Engles narrated that it is due to the discovery and colonization of various territories that an increase in the means and exchange of commodities have been observable. In relation to this, they also pointed out the development of technology especially in increasing the means of production that paved the way for the establishment of a modern industry that is led by the bourgeoisie. This modern industry is the one responsible in developing a world market that also contributed in the substantial development of commerce, navigation, and communication.
The bourgeoisie also led the way in the greater interaction of other countries because of “[T]he need of a constantly expanding market for its products chases the bourgeoisie over the entire surface of the globe. It must nestle everywhere, settle everywhere, establish connections everywhere” (Marx and Engels). Since the Communist Manifesto is also largely about the criticisms of the Communist League against capitalism, they were also able to describe the phenomenon of a global culture by pointing out the weaknesses of capitalism.
Among their main argument against capitalism states “[I]t has resolved personal worth into exchange value, and in place of the numberless indefeasible chartered freedoms, has set up that single, unconscionable freedom – Free trade” (Marx and Engels). In this statement, the Communist league pointed out that capitalism has degraded the worth of individuals into means of production that could be measured through monetary value as they become mere wage laborers.
Nevertheless, they were also able to identify one of the major features of globalization especially its influence in economic operations and that is free trade. Marx and Engles also emphasized the changes in the national identities of countries as the world market influence their production and consumption to have a cosmopolitan character. In this sense, the Communist Manifesto asserted that due to capitalism national identities are being destroyed.
This could be seen in terms of production wherein national industries that consume indigenous raw materials are using resources from the other parts of the globe. The consumption of individuals has also changed because capitalism influences them to have new wants that could only be satisfied by products found in other countries. Furthermore, the Communist Manifesto focused on the disparity between the “civilized” and barbaric countries wherein the nations that are not industrialized become dependent to those that already have technological advancement (Marx and Engels).
Convergence Culture and Long Tail Henry Jenkins defined convergence as the “flow of content across multiple media platforms, the cooperation between multiple media industries, and the migratory behavior of media audiences who will go almost anywhere in search of the kinds of entertainment experiences they want” (Jenkins 2). In this definition, convergence pertains to the description of technological, industrial, cultural, and social changes that are largely dependent upon the individual’s perspective while he or she talks about these matters.
Jenkins highlights the idea that convergence gives importance to the active participation of consumer wherein their ideas get circulated as media content across various media systems, competing media economies, and national borders. In relation to these, Jenkins explains that convergence is not a technological process that brings numerous media functions within the same devices but rather it represents a cultural shift. It is regarded as a cultural shift because it encouraged consumers to search for new information and establish connections among scattered media content.
Furthermore, he also clarifies that convergence takes place within the brains of individual consumers as they socially interact with other people and not through sophisticated media appliances (Jenkins 3). The concept of convergence culture of Henry Jenkins describes a new perspective of a global culture wherein its characteristics are not only dependent upon the exchange of goods or trade. The easier flow and exchange of information among people and nations is also another feature of globalization.
It focuses on the different way of thinking of people as they share their knowledge with others around the world through media. Chris Anderson also discusses the 21st century view of global culture through his book entitled “Long Tail. ” The term long tail pertains to a business strategy wherein selling a large number of unique items that have relatively small quantities gains significant profit. This could be exemplified by businesses like Amazon. com and Netflix (Anderson 16). Anderson explains that culture has an important role in the idea of long tail.
In line with this, he also asserted the importance media just like what Jenkins does. He points out that due to the industrial revolution and the development of technology, consumers are not merely satisfied by hit culture but rather they opted for the niche culture. The niche culture becomes possible due to the development of the Internet and other similar technologies that paved the way for entertainment business to extend their distribution. Due to this new technology, advertising of products make it possible for people to have access of goods and services that are found on different parts of the globe.
This also allows them to buy products that satisfy them at a cheap price. This market is regarded by Anderson as something that has no end because hits does not matter anymore, which is why it is referred to as “Long Tail” (Anderson 170-177). Relations of Discussed Readings The Communist Manifesto, Henry Jenkins’ Convergence Culture, and Chris Anderson’s Long Tail described the varying perspective about global culture. Marx and Engels were able to highlight the characteristics of globalization in terms of free trade, which they believe is one of the main influences of capitalism.
They also pointed out the changes in the way by which countries produce and consume their products as they tend to operate on an international level as compared before wherein its is locally based. On the other hand, the 21at century perspective of Jenkins discussed globalization in a different lens because he included the easier flow of information as part of this phenomenon. He asserted that media play an important role in the convergence culture but he explicitly identifies that it is the knowledge of participative individuals that paved the way for this shift in culture.
Furthermore, Chris Anderson’s Long Tail could be regarded as a combination of the ideas of Marx and Engels as well as Jenkins because he was able to tackle the role of media and trade. He was able to explain that through the advancement in technology industries like the entertainment business was able to flourish that also open the doors for more advertisement that promoted new wants for consumers. The clamor for new products becomes more accessible because it could be avail online through the Internet that makes the exchange of goods easier.
These readings were able to show the evolution in the development of the idea of a global culture. Analysis The Communist Manifesto is a call to action because the Communist League explicitly show their support to the proletarians who would want to revolt against the existing social and political order of things. They also encourage all workers of the world to unite and overthrow the existing ruling classes and social conditions as they believe that this is the only way by which they could attain their goal.
In relation to these, the idea of convergence culture wherein it empowers the consumer is also similar to this call of action of the Communist League. The greater participation of individuals allows their ideas to be shared to other through various medium like the media. National identities could still be formed in this globalizing world because people could be able to represent the distinct culture that they have in other countries as nations will still have differences even though globalization already exists.
Lastly, the active participation of individuals that is aided by various technological means could paved the way for collective intelligence without losing the sense of particularity or individuality This could be done in such a way that individual could contribute a piece of their mind that would eventually result to greater things and actions especially if everyone will pool out their resources and skills (Jenkins 4).Sample Essay of RushEssay.com