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Postdivorce Father-Adolescent Closeness

This is a straightforward study of the nature of father-child bond following parental divorce. This study provides an analysis of father-offspring bond following divorce. Moreover, it reveals that children who often feel close to their father after parental divorce experience superior results compared to those who do not.

Scott et al’s article emphasizes the significance of closeness in well-being of the child because separated fathers who possess such bonds with kids are likely to be more efficient in scrutinizing, communicating with, and educating children, thereby permitting the social capital intrinsic in the father-kid relationship to be achieved. Moreover, high degrees of closeness foster the diffusion of parent’s financial resources to kids.

Instead of evaluating factors surrounding divorce including shifts in financial resources and family conflict, this study highlights a long-term developmental loom to comprehending change and stability in post-divorce father-adolescent interaction. Primarily, the degree to which fathers are less proximate to adolescent children in comparison to mothers is accounted for. In addition, the Scott, M. et al’s article recognizes that adolescence is a period when kids are detaching themselves from their guardians, a pattern that may be aggravated by divorce.

The main notion is recognizing behavioral traits of adolescents and experiences before divorce and young adult function transitions that may impact father-child closeness. Historical Context Scott, M. et al study begins with comments on the historical context of father-offspring relationship. Scott et al notes that although father’s participation with offspring has improved in previous decades, mothers continue to play an integral role in childcare. The manner in which women and men parent their offspring differs in elementary ways with women being more emotionally and temporarily involved with their kids than fathers.

The numerous barriers established by fathers bodily separation from children following separation implies that fathers, being the distant parent prior to divorce, would be required to improve their investment in the liaison just to sustain pre-divorce levels of proximity. A second historical pattern is an improvement in the giving of joint custody. Legal custody in the divorce mismatches the verity of what occurred. Most kids end up residing with their mothers who often have greater role in decisions pertaining to child bearing. Adolescent and Parents

The author highlights prior studies in the same field which reveal that kids of all ages play an active role is shaping their surrounding. With respect to activities relating to parentage, recent patterns reveal that fathers are increasingly becoming involved in the lives of their offspring, both after and before divorce. 1196 Although father are rarely involved compared to mothers, it doesn’t imply that before divorce they don’t have a noticeable influence on offspring traits and experiences, thus having the capacity for shaping post-divorce father offspring bond.

Interdependence of Lives over Time Other factors such as the interdependence between children and their parents also influences the experiences of the offspring as well as future bond. Parental separation and the disappearance of the father from the household confront the veracity of father-child bond and tend to push all fathers and children toward declining proximity. A set of teenage experiences and behavioral traits before divorce have the capacity to shape father-child proximity following divorce.

Extra-Familial Resources Scott et al study emphasizes that extra-familial resources such as mother-offspring bond, school attachment and group membership also play an integral role in their growth. The mother-child relationship is always connected with long-term child competence and adjustment. Because the eminence of the mother-child bond is constructively correlated with the father-child bond, it is probable that kids who are proximate to their mothers also profit from intimate bonds to their fathers.

Close parent-child bonds improve children’s capability to cultivate useful and proximate bonds with others, which also serves as an imperative element in sustaining post-divorce father-child bond. Scott et al identifies school attachment as another factor that determines father-child bond. Although school attachment is determined by the eminence of life at family level, it has an autonomous influence on well-being of the offspring and even safeguards the person from negative home conditions.

On one extreme, being embedded in the school society may offer youth with communal resources and social support that make it possible for children to sustain a proximate bond wither their fathers. On the other extreme, fathers may tend to feel that they should assist their kids who are performing poorly in school and in the process can improve their bond with them. Group membership offers adolescent with openings for identity growth, empowering them to become more autonomous on their household and to create valuable ties with both peers and adults.

Because numerous youths are in the process of establishing this feature of their lives, they can be envisaged diminishing their investment in sustaining bonds with their fathers particularly during divorce. Sense of well-being is fundamentally a personal eminence that amalgamates a sense of individual efficacy and control with satisfaction in life. It is a pointer of offspring state before divorce that can be connected to post-divorce father-child bond proximity. It may serve to decrease or sustain father-adolescent proximity.

Post-adolescent changeovers to adult role symbolize life course alterations that also have the capacity to shape father-offspring proximity. Although preliminary researches suggest that such alterations enhance distancing, a detailed evaluation is warranted. Control variables. Apart from extra-familial resources, Scott et al’s article highlights other variables such as age, race, socioeconomic and gender status and their significance in shaping the amount and direction of father-offspring proximity following divorce.

In relation to offspring’s age, older offspring and fathers may be less inclined to sustain a proximate bond as offspring acquire freedom and spend additional time with friends during late teenage. Variation in father-offspring proximity may also change by child’s gender. Studies of non-resident fathers and two-parent households reveal that fathers are more proximate to sons compared to daughters. Therefore sons are probable to enjoy closer bonds with fathers before divorce and less likely to witness a decline in father-child proximity compared to girls.

With respect to race, studies reveal that adolescents particularly those of black origin are more proximate to their non-resident fathers than other races. Other researches locate no dissimilarity between blacks and whites. Socioeconomic status, normally assessed by parent’s income or education is constantly connected to well-being of the child, non-resident and resident father involvement as well as payment of offspring support. Interactions with child’s age, race, parental education and gender are evaluated to ascertain whether sequences of change and stability in proximity differ for daughters versus daughters.

In an attempt to assess whether the father-offspring relationship changed following divorce, a longitudinal survey was carried out among middle and high school students in United States to evaluate extra-familial resources such as sense of well being together with pre-divorce predictors such as mother-child relationship, group membership were analyzed . Physical interview were utilized to gather data over a period of seven years with the last interview being carried in 1995 and the last one in 2002.

On the whole, the analysis provided in this article illustrates the sequence of change and stability in father-offspring proximity after divorce and reveals that in a group of twenty four respondents, approximately fifty 57% of adolescents experience a turn down but nearly 25% of those proceeded at that level and a lesser number or 14% experienced a bond that became proximate or closer. Role of Gender and Age Scott et al’s findings indicate that gender and age moderated some relationship between offspring experiences and post-divorce offspring proximity.

Being younger was advantageous when the mother relationship was significant in sustaining a proximate father-offspring bond. On the other hand being older was advantageous when becoming a parent and cohabitation helped to sustain that bond. Pre-divorce family experience such as mother-offspring bond and child feeling of well-being played integral roles in thwarting proximate father-offspring bond from declining. Age moderated the bond between the mother-child bond and sustaining a proximate bond with their fathers especially in cases where they enjoyed a close bond with their mothers.

In addition, age also moderated the bond between sustaining a proximate father-offspring bond and cohabiting as well as becoming a parent. Early transitions into childbearing and cohabitation may harm father-offspring bond rather than bringing them closer. For children experiencing an improved closeness following divorce, studies indicated that lower edification, cohabitation and becoming a guardian functioned to improve proximity in father-offspring bond that were weak before divorce.

May be less edified children turn to their fathers for monetary assistance or other forms of support, whereas more educated children may be autonomous and thus possess fewer causes to enhance a bond that was strained to begin with. Deserting home at a very early age seems to be more probable to improve the relationship than does deserting at a later age. This implies that younger people possess greater litheness in influencing their bond with their father compared to those living continually with their mother.

The interdependence of lives is mirrored in the study that divorce is connected to change and stability in father-offspring bond quality. The findings indicate that mother-offspring bond and an individual sense of well-being circumvent a proximate father-offspring bond from decreasing and that cohabiting and becoming a guardian are linked to enhancement in father-child closeness. Shortcomings of the Article The article would have been strengthened by including a larger sample that could have revealed connections with other influential pre-divorce variables connected to post-divorce father-child closeness also being included.

Additionally, a larger model and subsequent interview might have disclosed other routes of proximity that might shape long-term closeness. Scott et al’s study would have greatly benefited from data on specifically when the break up happened relative to the gathering of proximity information. Proximity assessment prior or immediately after separations are probable to differ from those collected after longer period of time because individuals are still trying to adjust to the separation.

Moreover, the article would have been more useful if data was obtained unswervingly from the fathers with respect to their evaluation of father-offspring proximity, their view of the significance of the father-child link as well as their perception of the constraints and opportunities that affected post-divorce and pre-divorce closeness. Conclusion The article provides a link between pre-divorce variables and the nature of the father-offspring relationship after divorce. The proximity of the father-offspring relationship following divorce is connected with improved results for both adolescents and children.

In addition the article adds to the body of knowledge by assuming a long-term approach to comprehending change and stability in post-divorce father-child bond closeness. Mother-child relationship, cohabiting and becoming a parent, feeling of well-being have been highlighted as some of the factors that account for the improvement, deterioration or sustenance of father-offspring bond. References Scott, M et al. (2007). Postdivorce father-adolescent closeness. Journal of Marriage and Family, 69(5), 1194-1209.

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