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Pylori and Current Challenges

The ongoing development in the area of H pylori has been phenomenal from its conception till today. Today, H pylorus is a significant disease of morbidity and mortality, and therefore is of increased interest and research value. There are many aspects that belong to this organism, and continuous researches are hoping to clarify many mysteries of the disease. H pylori is one of the leading causes of gastric complications and gastric carcinomas, and therefore antibiotic regimes and future institution of vaccination procedures are needed very urgently to prevent any further loss of human life due to gastric complications.

Growing Challenges of Helicobacter Pylori: Past, Present and Future of Disease H pylori or helicobacter pylori disease infection is perhaps the most significant discoveries of the time. The first actual confirmation of the fact that peptic diseases are caused by microorganisms, and can be treated with antibiotic therapy has been a breakthrough in the cure for gastric diseases.

Further researches have helped us in understanding the unique structure of the bacterium and its different attributes, its mechanisms of interactions, the changes that it induces within its host, and the possible complications that it can give rise to are only one small aspect of H pylori quest. There is much more to learn, including the potential benefits of prevention of many gastric diseases due to infections of H pylori.

the researches have therefore been now categorized into those which look into the microscopic and physiological aspects of H pylori and its disease progression, those researches that are linking associations between different conditions of the gastrointestinal tract with H pylori, the clinical aspects of patient management and treatments, and the new future researches carried out to explore methods, and new drugs and vaccines that can help in treating and preventing the future disease.

All these researches are very extensive in nature, and are very hard to be put down in one simple article, since this would require a truly valiant effort and the need of volumes to fully detail the organism and its relative issues. However, the article below is a small but earnest attempt to identify the crucial aspects of the H pylori disease. The article looks into the brief history of the organism and its properties, and how it came to be discovered. It outlines some of the basic properties of the bacterium and the mechanisms with which it is able to live in one of the most hostile environments of the human bodies.

It then aims to briefly outline the various positive and negative associations that H pylori has with other conditions, and the effects that H pylori can have in its outcomes. The article then briefly looks into the clinical aspects of the H pylori disease, and the presenting symptoms, and diagnostic tests. It then proceeds to outlining the various therapeutic and surgical approaches to treatment of H pylori, past, present and the future. The section three is an outline of the current trends and findings that are important in the contribution of future directions of research.

And finally, the conclusions aim to tie up the different areas together in a concise form and lead to suggestions and possible questions that need answering. Part I: History of H Pylori: Development Through Times. What is Helicobacter Pylori Prior to its discovery, H pylorus was a bacterium that was not even present in the archives of microbiologists, and indeed was the reason for its frequent changing of names and classifications. Helicobacter pylori, or commonly referred to as H. pylori, is the only gram negative bacterium that has been able to colonize itself in the human stomach.

Its colonies are located in two regions of the epithelial layer of the stomach, the mucus gel layer, and the apical surfaces of the mucosal epithelial cells. (Lembo et. al, 2001) These two layers are ideal for the bacterium to resist the acidic attack of the stomach, to which if exposed can lead to its death. To aid its penetration in the mucosal layer, the organism is shaped in a helical form, which is also the source of its name. H pylorus is motile and curved rod gram negative bacterium, and is polymorphic in nature and therefore in humans, simultaneous colonization of the different strains may be present.

(Blaser, 1999) It is oxidase, catalase and urease positive. The transmission mode is mainly through oral to oral or oro-fecal contact, but other possible ways of transmission especially family related transmissions are also well documented. H pylorus was originally named as Campylobacter pyloridis, which was then changed to Campylobacter pylori and finally Helicobacter pylorus. The change of the name was essentially the creation of a new genus, which was evident by a number of properties that the bacteria showed.

(Moore and Phil, 1994) Some of the properties it showed were very similar to the properties demonstrated by the Campylobacter series, especially the positive urease tests, and urease breath test. This was the principal source of confusion among the scientists in the early discovery years, but subsequent differences in the nature of the organism made the clinicians realize it best to give it a new genus. H pylorus has multiple natural reservoirs. Humans constitute the most common reservoir and are responsible for most of its spread.

Other reservoirs can include household insects and pets such as flies and cats respectively and through water. (Gold, 2000) Still other reservoirs are gastric contents and vomitus, and fecal contents, which can cause major outbreaks if the water supplies become infected. The bacterium is usually able to carry out its entire life cycle in a single human body. (Blaser, 1999) This relationship between the bacterium and human is not recent, and there is a strong history of presence of these organisms in the human bodies for millions of years.

The implications of this finding alone have led to raising of questions about what changes the bacterium may have carried out in itself to adjust with the advancing and changing times, and whether the humans may have developed a state of symbiosis or mutual benefit with each other. Other questions include the possibility of the microorganism conferring any positive protective effects on humans. The reduced rates of other diarrheal infections with H pylori infected children is one of the possible areas of exploration. (Blaser, 1999) The possibility of co-evolution is another area of extensive research.

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