Research Projects Agency
The following history of the internet was taken from the website of Zakon ( 2006). It was in 1957, when a small agency called Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) was created by the US Dept of Defense to contribute in the advancement of US military science and technology after the cold war. Then in 1966, Larry Roberts of MIT presented the concept of an intact military control and command center in the event of a nuclear attack. He further discussed that by sharing information in small, phone-linked networks this concept can be attained. He named it ARPAnet after the agency who is its main sponsor.
The following year, 1967 saw the initial meeting of three independent packet network teams (RAND, NPL and ARPA) and the development of packet switching technology. Incidentally the term packet to describe the sharing of information in small, phone-linked networks was coined by Donald Watts Davies of NPL. In 1969 the US Dept of Defense commissioned a network research comprising of four official networks which were University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Stanford Research Institute (SRI), University of California Santa Barbara (UCSB) and the University of Utah.
And saw the first successful node to node message sent from UCLA to SRI. It was in 1971, when computer engineer Ray Tomlinson of BBN invented an email program to send messages across a distributed network. 1972 was a year to reckon with as Ray Tomlinson made modification to his earlier invention for ARPAnet with the utilization of “@” sign for its meaning of “at”. It was also the same year that the first email management program was created, through the efforts of its creator Larry Roberts to enable users to list, selectively read, file, forward, and respond to messages.
It was also the year when the first computer-to-computer ‘chat’ took place at UCLA. In 1973, the idea for Ethernet was outlined in a Harvard PhD Thesis by Bob Metcalfe. And the implementation of Network Voice Protocol (NVP) specification enabled conference calls over ARPAnet. Succeeding years saw the growth of the network as more nodes joined in, but global connectivity was achieved in 1973, when the University College of London and Norway’s Royal Radar Establishment also joined ARPAnet In 1974 Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn designed Transmission Control Program (TCP) an important program to the internet.
While the first commercial version of ARPAnet called Telenet was opened to the public by BBN. In 1975 John Vittal develops the first all-inclusive email program providing replying, forwarding, and filing capabilities called MSG. In 1977 Larry Landweber created THEORYNET at the University of Wisconsin, by using the email system over Telenet over 100 researchers in computer science were provided with electronic mail. In 1979 Kevin MacKenzie was flamed for emailing the MsgGroup with a suggestion of adding some emotion back into the dry text medium of email, such as -) for indicating a sentence was tongue-in-cheek.
But several years later, emoticons became to be widely accepted after Scott Fahlman suggested the use of and in a CMU BBS on 19 September 1982. (Zakon, 2006). The History of the Internet-2. 0 World Wide Web Many events have happened in the history of internet but it is Tim Berners-Lee, who we should thank for the internet we are using today. “He envisioned a global information space where information stored on computers everywhere was linked and available to anyone anywhere”. (Tim Berners Lee, n. d. ) The following information was taken from the web page of Tim Berners-Lee (n.
d) an alumnus of Queen’s College and Oxford University, England. In 1976 after graduating from Oxford, he landed a temporary contract job as a software consultant at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, the world’s largest particle physics centre. CERN stands for Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire in English, European Organization for Nuclear Research. During his temporary tenure he wrote a program, called Enquire for his personal use. This helped him remember connections between various people and projects at CERN.Sample Essay of Edusson.com