The German And The Italian Unification - Best Essay Writing Service Reviews Reviews | Get Coupon Or Discount 2016
Free Essays All Companies All Writing Services

The German and the Italian Unification

By the middle of the 19th century, the whole Europe was remapped in a way that presented it as the combination and gathering of multiple small states, which could not find any agreement and pursued different political and economic goals. Simultaneously, the period of the 1870s was marked with the growing power of the two nations that sought unification – the German Empire and the Kingdom of Italy. Both were torn between multiple territories, and both were equally motivated by the emerging political trends.

The impact of the German unification on the Italian unification was expressed through the growing significance of liberalism and nationalism that had been born in Germany and were gradually spreading to cover Italian territories. The German and the Italian Unification Introduction By the middle of the 19th century, the whole Europe was remapped in a way that presented it as the combination and gathering of multiple small states, which could not find any agreement and pursued different political and economic goals.

Simultaneously, the period of the 1870s was marked with the growing power of the two nations that sought unification – the German Empire and the Kingdom of Italy. Both were torn between multiple territories, and both were equally motivated by the emerging political trends. The impact of the German unification on the Italian unification was expressed through the growing significance of liberalism and nationalism that had been born in Germany and were gradually spreading to cover Italian territories.

Historians generally agree that prior to the period of unification both Italy and Germany had born similar political features, and in many instances, the process of unification that followed was also characterized by obvious commonalities between the two states. For Italy, it was the matter of turning separate states ruled by despotic kings into one single state. For Germany, it was a matter of unifying some three hundred independent states under a common government.

Although both Italy and Germany were equally influenced by Napoleonic invasions and the French Revolution, it was due to Germany that Italy was given a chance to taste the sweetness of political nationalism and liberalism. It should be noted that in 1796 the Italian peninsula was conquered by Napoleon, and when Napoleon’s political and military hold weakened, Italy appeared under Austrian ruling (Ziblatt, 2006). Foreign ruling, however, did not go along with the Italians’ plans for economic and political prosperity, and to a large extent similar unification tensions in Germany could become a good example for Italians.

After the 1848 revolution in Rome, Italy entered the new stage of its political development, with frequent rebellions as the driving force of territorial unification. Everything was different with Germany, and its unification moods were driven by the growing political consciousness and economic interests. The same year 1848, the Frankfurt assembly was convened to provide German states with a liberal constitution as another driving force of unification (Ziblatt, 2006).

Although Italy and Germany were similar in a sense that both sought to develop and expand the scope of nationalism as the critical component of unification, for Germany unification was much more peaceful and less bloody than it was for Italy. Under Bismarck, who set securing treaties with the major European powers, attacked Austria, and organized the North German Confederation in 1876. The German unification was the result of wise political maneuvering and extensive political support; in case of Germany, unification had to occur on their own terms.

For Italy, unification was carried out in the continuous opposition with external enemies, which made nationalism the determining feature of the unification success. In this context, and given the conditions in which unification took place, the natural question is in whether Bismarck had the right to unite Germany. In my opinion, Bismarck did not simply have the right for unification, but unification was the necessary precondition for Germany’s continuous prosperity.

As the Prime-Minister of Germany, Bismarck understood that the German Confederation was a much more effective institution than the previous form of German statehood, or rather its absence. Given that the German Confederation was the direct result of political agreement with other political forces, Bismarck had the right to unify Germany in order to pursue its policies without any opposition on the side of other states. Without unification, Bismarck would hardly create an atmosphere favorable to liberal moods.

Moreover, it was due to unification that Bismarck succeeded in forming the Customs Union and the new ideology of economic nationalism (Breuilly, 1993). Conclusion Objectively, the Italian and the German unification were completely different both in reasons and in processes. While the German unification was called for by the growing nationalist moods and occurred via effective political tactics that had to confirm the German Confederation’s might, the Italian unification was the result of the growing territorial tensions and the opposition to foreign military occupation.

Nevertheless, it was due to Germany that Italy was given a chance to develop and use nationalism for the sake of its unification ambitions. At the same time, it was because of the German unification that Bismarck brought in a new quality of political relationships that resulted in the emerging political self-consciousness and dominance in Europe. References Breuilly, J. (1993). Nationalism and the state. Manchester University Press. Ziblatt, D. (2006). Structuring the state: The formation of Italy and Germany and the puzzle of federalism. Princeton University Press.

Sample Essay of RushEssay.com