The North and the South on the power of the Union vs. the power of the states
The Southern States had taken the position that the States are sovereign over the Federal government. They had argued since the 1830s that if a state questions the constitutional validity of a particular Federal act, they have the right to ignore it. This concept was referred to as nullification. Northern states believed that the federal government was sovereign and that the states must abide by all federal laws. This issues was raised during the 1830s, but was not resolved in a manner that addressed the underlying question of ultimate sovereignty.
The test of that concept came by way of the Civil war, wherein the Southern states were not able to make their claim to sovereignty stick against the military force of the federal government. Describe Lincoln’s position on the emancipation of the slaves in the Border States. At the beginning of the Civil War, Lincoln had promised to restore the Union while maintaining slavery where it existed. As the fighting began, it became even more important to Lincoln to respect the slave-holding rights in Border States in order to ensure their continued loyalty to the Union.
As the war continued, the growing numbers of fugitive slaves forced Lincoln to solidify his position as against slavery and in favor of emancipation. By mid-1862, Lincoln had persuaded congress to pass a number of emancipation acts freeing slaves in Washington D. C. , in U. S. territories in the west, and finally in all rebel territory. Lincoln’s position changed for three reasons: first, public opinion swung toward emancipation as time woe on, second, the war needed a moral cause to boost morale, and third, the slaves in the south were performing tasks that were instrumental in the rebel war effort.
Why was 1863 the key military year of the American Civil War? 1863 was a key year militarily for the Union army. After almost two years of inertia and incompetence, the Northern army began placing men in leadership roles who were capable of winning key battles. Joe Hooker, despite his setback at Chancellorsville, inflicted significant losses on Lee’s army, while a reinstated General Grant pinned 30,000 confederate soldiers inside of Vicksburg. After General Meade took over for Hooker, his forces inflicted a significant defeat on Lee’s confederates at Gettysburg. This was the last battle to be fought in Union territory.
Lee and his army spent the rest of the war on the run as Union superiority in manpower and supplies finally married with military competence to carry the war into the south. How did the presidential election of 1864 impact the American Civil War? By 1864, with the war dragging on, several factions arose in the union to contest the general election. The democrats nominated George McClellan on a platform of ending the war and having a convention to restore the union. Because of heavy losses early in 1864, Lincoln expected to lose despite co-opting democrat Andrew Johnson to balance his ticket.
In September, however, Sherman took Atlanta, Farragut captured Mobile, and Lincoln won the election with a mandate to crush the south into submission, which was done in the months following Lincoln’s reelection. What were the expectations of African Americans following the American Civil War? Many African Americans expected to be allowed land upon which to settle after being freed from bondage. Rumors based upon field orders given during the war led to the expectation of “40 acres and a mule”. Unfortunately, even northern abolitionists balked at the cost of such a program.
Many others, particularly in the Deep South were late in discovering the fact of emancipation, and did not really anticipate much change. Whatever their expectations, African Americans in the South were subjected to legal and social attempts to perpetuate the conditions of slavery without the actual institution. Describe the principal political motivations that led to the impeachment and trial of Andrew Johnson? Johnson, a Democrat with Southern sympathies, ran afoul of the Radical Republican-dominated congress, which began passing laws to limit Johnson’s discretion in choosing his cabinet and other officials.
Johnson deliberately defied one of these new laws to test their legality. The House of representatives obliged by passing a bill of impeachment, and the Senate acquitted him by a narrow margin in exchange for card blanche on a program of radical reformation in the South. How did the concept of sharecropping impact Southern agriculture following the American Civil War? Sharecropping was a system that allowed the elite of the Southern agriculturists to maintain plantation-like circumstances by renting portions of land to poor whites and former slaves to cultivate in exchange for a living wage and rights to work the land.
The overall conditions of southern agriculture and the inability to grow cash crops on a small scale doomed this system. Many sharecroppers abandoned their land to seek better-paying urban industrial jobs, and the plantation system failed to survive after the fall of slavery in the south. Describe two of the techniques used by the White Democratic Party to obstruct the rights of African Americans in the late 19th century. White Democrats blocked the rights of African Americans by imposing literacy tests that were impassible as prerequisites for voting.
In other locations, a “grandfather clause” was inserted, barring suffrage to those whose grandparents did not vote. Another method of blocking the African American right to vote was the poll tax, a fee imposed on African American voters that was too high for most of them to pay. In terms of other civil rights, White Democrats ignored the provisions of the 14th Amendment, and held that position until forced to change by the Supreme Court and the Federal government. Such intervention did not occur for about 90 years.
What was the role of African Americans in the Spanish American War? About 2500 African American veterans participated in the War against Spain. There men represented 10% of the U. S. Army, and most had served with distinction as “Buffalo Soldiers in the frontier west. Despite playing a key role in Roosevelt’s victory at San Juan Hill, their participation was not honored by the southerners who flocked to Cuba and reinstituted Jim Crow laws affecting not only African-Americans, but native Cubans.
Compare and contrast the views of the American imperialists and the American anti-imperialists in regard to America’s role in world affairs. Imperialists felt that the United States had a political and moral obligation to exert control over “uncivilized” areas such as the Philippines and teach our “little brown brothers” about Democracy and Christianity. Anti-Imperialists pointed out that our participation in world-affairs had not been profitable enough to maintain, and that the moral course was to allow these nations to pursue their own destiny.
Discuss either the Panama Canal or the Open Door as defining U. S. foreign policy in the early 20th century. The Panama Canal incident is a defining occurrence in the field of U. S. foreign policy. Facing opposition from the Columbian government for a canal in the province of Panama, the United States and France supported a Panamanian revolution. The resulting new government was quite willing to lease the Canal Zone to the United States. This illustrates the willingness that America has shown to interfere with the affairs of sovereign nations in order to advance its own interest.
How did the Immigration movement affect the expansion of the American economy? American economic expansion during the early 20th Century was based on industrial development and growth. Such growth was labor-intensive, and immigration provided a large pool of unskilled, inexpensive labor to feed economic growth. Despite the protests of groups who favored racial and ethnic purity, immigrants from southern and eastern Europe continued to pour in and improve the economy by providing both labor and markets for an increasingly large industrial base.
In the west, Asian immigrants contributed to the booming mining and railroad industries by providing inexpensive, dedicated and reliable labor. Discuss the role of urbanization and American consumerism. Urbanization and consumerism have a symbiotic relationship. As Americans began purchasing more manufactured goods, the need for urban laborer increased to meet the demand. As laborers moved to higher-paying positions in the cities, they, in turn were able to purchase more manufactured goods. Thus, consumerism led to increased urbanization, and that urbanization led to more consumerism.Sample Essay of AssignmentExpert.com