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The Pluralist theory

The Pluralist theory of government is based on the free-market/democratic nature of the US government. It states that the government is run by several different groups that represent many different varieties of peoples who have their own agendas. Those certain groups have certain sway over issues that have been the subject of their concentration for the extent of the group’s existence. These groups tend to be volunteer organizations that eventually form interest groups that hold sway over key economic and social issues that the government deals with on regular bases.

The elitist theory states that a few economic elite actually hold more sway over the American political system through various lobbyists and donations. US government is in effect persuaded by economic elite forces on a constant basis, but those elites are still subject to the supervision and approval of the interest groups that are exhibited in the pluralist theory. For it is only when people are willing to work for no pay other than to see their goals achieved, that entire movements and revolutions take place.

Though economic forces may be utilized as a tool, it does not mean that political issues are decided completely by those at the top of the capitalist elite. The Civil rights movement can be described as one of the original interest groups that did not hold the authority of the economic elite, but were able to use economic forces in order to make social change. 2. The iron triangle composes of three political forces that are dependent on each other in the current form of government: legislative, bureaucratic, and interest groups.

This is a relationship between the three entities that allows bills to become laws when interest groups support the legislatures that hire staffers in the bureaucracy that work for committees and subcommittees that hold sway over governmental policies. 3. Technically the United States is not a democracy, but rather a republic. Citizens elect representatives to act on behalf of the people, but the people do not directly create and enforce the law. To avoid elected tyranny, there are many limitations to government.

Limited government is typically ruled by the constitution. The constitution limits the authority of the government by stating very clearly the there are certain freedoms that can never be obstructed in the bill of rights. It also grants authorities to the state, such as education, police powers, and civil service such as firefighting and the medical licensing. These are known as decentralized powers. Certain authorities that are shared or given to more local forms of government as oppose to a single-rule federal government.

The politicians that are elected to such places of authority are often subject to an image the media portrays. It may seem that some politics are elected more for their charisma than their logic, such as seemed to be the case between Nixon and JFK. 4. The media’s effect on politics is paramount. After all, it is the only true method the average citizen can supervise politicians elected to office. The media will set an agenda for politicians to tackle that are dear to Americans, thus forming governmental policy based on what citizens need an answer on, such as what to do about abortion.

These agendas are portrayed in print and broadcast news, but in very different methods. Whereas print will give the cold facts in intimate details, quotes, and a hint of bias, the broadcast news is sometimes subject to trivial whims. The best videos that show the most detrimental or outlandish fabrics of government are the cuts that are broadcasted, leaving out much of the details and entire stories that can be found in print. As such, it allows for politicians to campaign based on charm other than anything else as was Kennedy’s case when he ran and debated against Nixon.

5. The political parties of America’s two-party system are losing a deal of control over American politics because they function in name only. The ideological differences between the two parties are no longer clear and cut. They may be at a state of constant conflict, but that conflict does not go so far to collide with a politician’s desire for reelection. As such, both parties will share many of the same views and simply differ on how to achieve governmental goals. For example, the Republican Party once stood for limited government and budget spending.

Yet, there was a federal surplus at the curtail of Clinton’s career which was driven into a massive deficit by the Bush administration. It almost makes no difference now whether a statesman is democrat or a republican, because the goals are going to be the same for government. The only difference is who will do it better. In this way, the weakening of both parties will actually make things more democratic in America because the smartest man will be elected to office, not the man who is apart of the party with the popular ideology.

6. The most powerful person in America will always be the president. If not for the sheer fact that the president is commander and chief of the armed forces, then for the right to veto any law, that would otherwise take a two-thirds vote from both houses of congresses to override. In this manner, the president is the politician that authorizes the validity of laws. Without such enforcement, a law is nothing more than a guideline over how society ought to behave.

In relation to other politicians such as the Chairman of the House and the senate majority leader, the comparisons are weak at best. The chairman may oversee House proceedings, break ties, and is third in line to the presidency, but these are mostly trivial to government rule. The senate majority leader is similar in that this leader manages the senate floor through junior senators. They are typically considered leaders of the majority party, but are dwarfed by the president when it comes to issues of authority.

In this manner, the president should act as a representative of the people so that the leadership of congress is never turned into tyranny. 7. According to the bureaucratic theory, the routinized administrations rule the government. In effect, people free of prejudices are given a single goal to achieve, within the parameters of the routine that has been established as indestructible. Thus an institution must have a clear division of labor, consistent pattern of personnel recruitment, a clear hierarchy, and a flow of formal and informal communication.

These rules typically relate to government agencies that are established to perform tasks such as defense, collecting taxes, and distributing social security. However, some bureaucracies relate too much to the routine and not to the goal. This routine that is placed over the needs of the actual goal is known as bureaucratic inertia. They are often subject to incredentalism which only allows for minor changes for a quick-fix instead of massive changes that could upset the nature of the bureaucratic inertia, but be for the betterment of society.

For the most part government runs on the use of bureaucracy but is not ruled by bureaucracy for the mere fact that they cannot set policy, they can only help enforce it. 8. The US courts act as a check to both congress and the executive branch. Legislators may pass a law that is enforced by the president, but it is the independent judiciary that can judge the laws to be constitutional. In this way, independent courts are not to be subject to control by any other branch so that voiding a law is not hindered by political duress.

The courts have expanded civil rights by judging laws to be unconstitutional, such as segregation in schools from Brown V. The Board of Education. In more recent times they have judged militant combatants to being subject to civilian courts after ruling the Military Commission Act of 2006 to be unconstitutional. So in many ways, civil rights and rights of the accused were expanded by judging other laws passed by legislators to be in effect, illegal, making America a freer nation to live in.

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