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United States Minority groups

In the US, the minority groups include the African-Americans, Hispanics, American Indians and Asians or Pacific Islanders. The US is a clear example of a culturally diverse society. Though there are speculations that by mid of the 20th century the minority population will outnumber the Caucasians who are the majority, that occurrence is yet to be realised. The African Americans popularly known as the black Americans make the single largest racial minority in the US and are the second largest racial group after the Caucasians in the United States (Barbara, 2005).

Since the Civil Rights Movement, the African Americans have improved their social and economic ways of lives significantly. They have had a lot more access to education both in the lower and higher levels. African American employment and representation in the highest levels of American government has hit sky rocket with the most recent being Obama holding the highest office in government, the president. However, as a result of slavery, racial discrimination and other forms of discrimination, African Americans as a group still lag behind in terms of education, socially and economically they are at a disadvantage.

These issues that affects the black Americans include inadequate access to medical care, racism even at institutional level, prejudice in accommodation allotment, education, policing, no or limited access to criminal justice, unemployment, high crime rates, paucity and drug abuse (Gates, 2004). A racial gap between the African American and the Caucasians exists of about 6 years with the Caucasians having a life expectancy rate of 75. 2 years and the African Americans’ is 69. 6 years.

The infant mortality rate for the African Americans is estimated to be twice as much as that of the Caucasians. The United States has had a reputation of providing high quality health care for the people of the highest socioeconomic status and poor healthcare for those of low socioeconomic status. Hence, the African Americans are in need of improved health services so as to reduce the increasing number of deaths that are caused by mostly curable diseases (Gates, 2004). As a minority group, most of the African Americans have lower socio economic status than the majority group.

In that case, the poverty rate is predominantly high. This issue of poverty makes them in need of so many essential services which they cannot access due to their financial inability. Apart from the health care need having most of them not medically covered by insurance companies, African Americans lack the basic needs like food. The rate of unemployment is high and that leads to poverty. Since many of them do not have a way of meeting their daily needs and fending for their families, they end up going for days without food and water.

Some are wage earners and with what they earn they cannot afford to provide meals three times a day but just one meal a day. Minority groups in the society usually live in poverty due to the social dissimilarity brought about by social stratification. The education systems are of a lower standard as compared to the members of the majority group. There is dire need in the improvement of the quality of education for the African American population in The United States.

This is because the schools systems in the inner cities and suburbs significantly vary. The rich who are mostly Caucasians live in the suburbs and have their children provided for with the best possible kind of education while the black Americans living in the ghettos get very low standard forms of education. The schools are in very risky neighbourhoods with kids exposed to drug dealers and criminals therefore education is not that conducive with such an environment (Barbara, 2005).

Security is another major need that the minority group in the US have. Insecurity has been generated by the high level of unemployment that is prevalent among the young African Americans. These youths are frustrated and in the end result to violence and even crime so as to earn a living. Therefore the entire group is at risk of being mugged or attacked by these gang members making their neighbourhood very insecure (Mumford, 2007). In essence, the African American race in the United States being a minority group has its fair share of problems.

Though in the recent years revolution has brought with it a change as far as the black Americans are concerned, their problems still lie unresolved. There are many black American leaders in government and very successful people in the US society that are of the African origin. This has not completely put a stop to the marginalization of the African Americans. The highest medical care issues, poverty, insecurity and crime among other ills are highly registered among the African Americans of the United States.

References

Barbara, Cherry & Susan, R. Jacob. (2004). Contemporary nursing: issues, trends, &      management. New York: Elsevier Health Sciences, 2005, pg. 237-240.

Gates, L. Henry and Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham. African American Lives. Oxford      University Press, pg. 133-135

Mumford, Lewis. (2007). The size and regional distribution of the black population. New           York:             Mumford Center, pg 10-11 http://mumford1.dyndns.org/cen2000/BlackWhite/BlackDiversityReport/black-diversity03.htm. Retrieved on 2007-10-01.

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