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Uruguay & ancient countries

Uruguay was one of the ancient countries that got its independent from the Spanish early in history; the land occupancy was very small, with mixture of tribes and races. They had an exceedingly greater cultural make up than many larger countries. The history of sport in the world will never be complete if Uruguay was not mentioned. The first world cup was played in Uruguay which was won by them. They were also noted for their cool and attractive environment which had attracted many international tourists. Their middle class economy had considerably improved over the years.

The Uruguayan government comprises both the executive arm and the legislative arm; the legislative arm was saddled with checking the activity of the executive arms of the government. The country also had a security conscious aviation culture. Uruguay official name was Republica oriental del Uruguay, situated in the southeastern part of South America south to Brazil. It has low plateau in the north and southern part is of low rolling plain. It has about 3. 3 million population of which 1. 7 million live in the capital Montevideo and cosmopolitan area.

The north border is Brazil, west border is Argentina, and Estuary Riode Plata is the southwest border while Atlanta Ocean makes the eastern border. The name Uruguay was coined out from the word Guarum which has many meanings, the prominent ones were associated with Felix de Azara who suggested that the name was from a small bird called Uru or a river that have dead people of snails. Some other interpretation suggested that it was from river of colorful or painted chinchillas {attributed to Juan Zorrilla de San Martin. }, and river of those who bring food (attributed to Jesuit Lucas Marton.

). HISTORY The original inhabitant of Uruguay before the European colonization were the Charrua Indians, they were so hostile to the extent of killing the explorer Juan Diaz de Solis and most of his party when they were on war with the Spaniards in 1516. Later they prospered and abandoned hostility and then became friends of the Spanish and traded with them. The Portuguese were the first to settle in the country, but their settlement were restricted due to the absent of gold and silver during 16th and 17th centuries.

Later the Spanish wrestled the country form the Portuguese, and started bringing cattle, which became the source of income to the country. There was another segment of colonial Uruguay’s population which consisted of people of African origin. Colonial Uruguay’s African community multiplied in number as its members relocated from harsh Buenos Aires to Montevideo, which had a larger black community, and were lest hostile politically than Buenos Aires, and had a more favorable climate with relatively lower humidity.

Colonial Uruguay province were known and popularly called Banda Oriental, or Eastern Strip, even the resident call themselves “Easterners” or “Orientales”, the capital Montevideo was created by the Spanish as their military powerhouse. The early 19th century history was influenced by the conflicts between the British, Portuguese, Spanish and colonial forces for dominance in the Argentina-Brazil-Uruguay region.

In 1806 and 1807, the British force decided to seize Buenos Aires as part of their struggle with Spain, resulting in the camping of 10000 British army at the Montevideo, they stayed there till the middle of the year and later left to attack Buenos Aires. Uruguayan hero Jose Artigas led his force to victory against the Spanish but was unable to prevent a Brazilian takeover of the Banda. Exiled to Paraguay, he inspired the ’33 Easterner ‘ who, with Argentine support, delivered the country in 1825 and established Uruguay as an independent state between Argentina and Brazil. Their independence was recognized not until 1828.

Because of their weak independence, they were threatened many times by the Argentineans and the Brazilians. GOVERNMENT AND POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT The political terrain in Uruguay were inform of presidential representative democracy republic, in which the president will be both the head of state and the head of government and the country operate a multi-political party system. The executive power was on the government while the legislative power was vested on both the government and the chambers in the general assembly. The third form of government is judicial and it is independent on the executives and the legislatures.

For majority of Uruguay’s history, the Partido Colorado and the Partido Bianco have been alternating the government. The Partido Blanco had its origin from the countryside and the original settlers of Spanish origin and the cattle ranchers. The Partido Colorado has its sources from the port city of Montevideo, The elections that was conducted in October 2004, however, brought the Frente Amplio, a coalition of socialists, and former communists and prominent member of the social democrats among others to govern with majorities in both houses of parliament and the election of President Tabare Vazquez by a vast majority.

Uruguay was ranked 28th position in the World CPI (Corruption Perception Index) composed by the transparency international. The Uruguay’s constitution of 1967 institutionalizes a presidency, which is subject to both legislative and judicial checking. it also stipulated that the president’s term will be 5 years. The president appointed thirteen cabinets’ ministers and, head executive departments. The constitution also makes provision for a General Assembly responsible for enacting laws and regulating the administration of justice.

The General Assembly was made up of a 30-member Senate and a 99-member Chamber of Deputies and will be presided over by the vice president of the republic. CULTURE They had a very interesting legacy of artistic and literary traditions, as small as it was; the influence resulted in a tradition that has incorporated a diverse culture in its own culture. Uruguay was rich in centuries old remains, fortresses of the colonial era and its cities possessed a rich architectural heritage and an impressive number of writers, musicians and artists, whose handiworks have had great effects on the culture of the land.

Uruguayan tango is the prominence form of dance that emanated from the neighborhoods of Montevideo, at the tail the end of the 1800s. The three main style of dance and music in Uruguay were tango, murga and candombe. GEOGRAPHY The country is about 176,214 square kilometers, in length. It is the second smallest independent country in the continent and the third smallest territory, the country consisted of four river basin, which were the Rio de la Plata, the Uruguay River, the Laguna Merin and the Rio Negro, in which the major internal river is the Rio Negro otherwise called black river.

The country’s highest point is the Cerro Cathedral Map of uruguay(culled from www. wikipedia. com) about 513. 66 meters situated in the ‘Sierra de Carape’ mountain range, the climatic condition was temperate, and the landscape was vulnerable to rapid changes from the weather. The month of June was the coolest month, while the warmest was January. Rainfall is fairly evenly distributed over the year and tends to fall in a few days. The autumn months tend to have an increased level of rainfall.

Although, pronounced seasonal change during occur during the year, the winter months (June to August) are fairly mild, there is an abundant sunshine at this time, ECONOMIC Uruguay’s economy can be classified as the middle economy type, the country extensively relies heavily on trade of agricultural export, and this had made the country to be susceptible to the reduction or fluctuation in the commodity prices. Argentina and Brazil were the major buyer of the Uruguay commodities, so any decrease in the economy of the two countries will drastically affect the economic of the country.

Despite all these, Uruguay seems to have the highest and profitable economy compared to the neighboring countries. Over the years the country had been experiencing an increase in unemployment levels which rose to above 20%. These worsened economic conditions had played a major role in the public opinion against the free market policy implemented by the previous administrations in the 1990s, leading to the popular rejection of proposals for selling of the state petroleum company to the public in 2003 and of the state water company in 2004.

The newly elected president, while campaigning pledged to continue payment of every debt and has also promised to adopt an Emergency Plan to combat the widespread problems of unemployment and poverty SPORT Uruguayan were majorly involved in playing football, their national team was among the first five to win the world cup one or more times, despite their relative small number, they distinguishes themselves among other countries in the football game winning many nation that have population 10 times theirs.

They hosted the first ever world cup in 1930 and won the competition. In 1950 FIFA World Cup, they defeated Brazil to win the cup. Their national team has also won the Copa America 14 times, a record it shared with Argentina. The most well known football teams in Uruguay were the Club Atletico Penarol, they were three times World Champions and one of the most important and well respected team in America, and Club Nacional de Football. They were also of utmost importance in other games like Basketball, Tennis and Rugby to mention a few. FOREIGN RELATIONS

Uruguayans has been known for their strong political and cultural links with its neighboring countries and Europe. Its linked with the north American have wax stronger with increasing globalization and their economic problems, Uruguay was a country that always advocate for constitutional democracy and dividend, political pluralism, and individual liberties. Its international relations had been greatly enhanced by the principles of non-intervention, multilateralism, respect for national sovereignty, and reliance on the rule of law to make peace and settle disputes.

It was one of the pioneer members of Mercosur; the Southern Cone Common Market which also composed of Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay. Uruguay had also contributed to the world peace in which it had been supporting the peace keeping by sending its own troops together with the UN peace keeping troops. AVIATION Private aircraft that wanted overfly or land for non commercial purposes may not request for prior permission but commercial aircrafts either for commercial or non commercial purposes must obtain prior permission at least 24 hours before intruding into the Uruguayan airspace, from the civil authority in Montevideo.

For safety purposes, aircraft must possess registration marks and nationality, full name of aircraft address, telephone number of owners, full name of the crew members, and purpose of flight. All authorization granted will be invalid after 15 days authorization there are authorities for safeguarding the airspace of the country, there are some that were set to monitor the weather condition and will give their remarks interest before an aircraft leave the country. Also there were authorities that were concern on the movement of people in and out of the country.


Aeronautical information: Uruguay,(2005), http://www. gofir. com/s_america/country/uruguay/aero_info. htm. Date of retrival:Feb 2rd 2008. Uruguay (2008): http//en. wikipedia. org/wiki/uruguay. Date of retrival:Feb 3rd 2008. Pearson Education Inc: Uruguay (2007): www. infoplease. com/country/profils/uruguay. html. Date of retrieval:3rd feb,2008 Uruguay: History (2007), http://www. lonelyplanet. com/worldguide/uruguay/history. Retrieved on 3rd Feb. , 2008.

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