US Foreign Policy towards Iran Post 9/11
Since the revolution of Iran in 1979 the relations between the United States of America and the Islamic Republic of Iran have been seen among the most contentious in the world. When Iran was going through revolutionary period there were some embarrassing slogans for the United States were chanted like “Death to America” and “God is great”. The United States has also bad memories like detention of hostages in Tehran. Almost 20 years tenure the United States has imposed trade and economic embargos on Iran.
In return Iran has strongly resisted the compliance and showed its aggression. It may be asked that whether these sanctions have played a positive role in compelling Iran to behave according to the United States desires, answer of these same come in negative. Inspite of that the United is continuously imposing sanctions on Iran for mounting more pressure and get the desired results. Naturally, Iran has the geographical advantage of having oil reserves and its existing infrastructure for supplying oil makes it an important country in the world.
Such factors demands from the United States to adopt more accommodating behaviour toward Iran and certainly should not impose significant embargos on American companies trying to compete in the oil industry in the world. After the Islamic revolution in Iran Mohammad Raza Shah Pahlavi was sacked by Ayatollah Khomeni who established a new Islamic regime in Iran. Mr. Ayatullah Khomeni was an Islamic fundamentalist. During his first year regime the United States embassy in Iran was seized by a group of students later who proved to have back of Khomeni.
The reason for backing these groups of students was retaliation of the Carter government’s decision to provide asylum to Shah of Iran in the United States of America on the pretext of medical treatment. Such gestures from both sides made the situation more badly. For gaining the release of hostages detained in Iran the United States chalked out comprehensive sanctions program against Iran like restriction against the military shipment spare parts, embargo against all oil imports from Iran and freezing of all Iranian deposits in the United States Banks.
The hostages were released after 444 days after detention. The economic sanctions played a very small role. Ayatullah Khomeni proved to be a very strict Islamic leader. He had no soft heart feelings for the United States and especially Israel. He had also allegation of supporting Hezbollah and Hamas who are very active liberation fighters in Israel fighting for the freedom of their homeland. Iran proved itself a leader in the Islamic world. Iran raised its hand against every move against the Muslims of the world. He completely unfavored the policies made for Israel including having the nuclear capability.
Iran always asked the question from the Untied States that if Israel can possess the nuclear capability than why other countries especially Muslim countries can not have such capability. Iran supported the Philistine and its liberation movement. The United States has also the suspect of sabotage of 9/11 in the background of Iran. The United States is in search of hands of Iran in 9/11 incidences. Iran claimed to possess nuclear capabilities like Israel. Iran is in the process of acquiring nuclear capabilities. America does not like the situation. It does not want to allow Iran to have such capability.
The United States is trying its level best to keep Iran away from having the nuclear capabilities. The United States is truing to stop Iran even with the help of the United Nations. On the contrary, Iran is not paying attention to the demands of the United States and has not taken any care of trade embargos or others restrictions imposed by the United States or the United Nations. Iran claims that its nuclear capability is for peace purpose and not for harming anyone but the United States does not agree with Iran claim. The United States sees the danger for Israel in the background in the form of Iran’s nuclear capabilities.
Israel is also pressing hard to the United States to restrict Iran from possessing nuclear capabilities. In this connection Iran again reiterated its stand for possessing nuclear capabilities for peaceful purposes. Iran has invited UN inspectors to inspect its capability but the United States claims that Iran’s capability is or may be destructive; therefore, it should be destroyed or stopped. In such circumstances the relations between both the countries have become more critical although efforts are being made to calm down the situation but at present the situation is not understandable.
United States Policy towards Iran post 9/11 The chapter includes the official policies being adopted by the United States towards Iran after 9/11 narrated by Ambassador James F. Jeffrey. Presently Iran and the United States are standing face to fact against each due to different differences like peace stability in region, Iran’s making or nuclear bombs, Iran’s policy toward Israel and Iran’s interferences in Iraq. In such circumstances what will be policy of the United States toward Iran? It looks like that the United States of America is not planning a full-fledged war against Iran as one of its option.
It is assumed that consequences from the war of Afghanistan and Iraq had led the more power for anti American political factors in Iran’s government. Therefore, the remaining options may be: • More strict economical and political sanctions should be imposed on Iran. • A Civil war on racial grounds in Iran may be started and divide Iran into smaller and weaker parts like Yugoslavia. • Nuclear capability related infrastructure, and military facilities should be destroyed by aerial bombing or Special Forces operations. • Iran’s government may be changed.
The cooperation from big countries like Russia and China is satisfactory but the cooperation from European countries is desirable, they are much interested in this solution. Iran has already bought on high rates what they want from Russia, China, India, Pakistan and North Korea or indirectly from Dubai and Turkey. The option of using Special Forces operations in Iran for the destruction of different facilities is almost impossible like American forces failed to rescue. The US politician will not take this risk again.
Aerial bombing with the help of stealth fighters’ bombs may be a good idea but it should be kept in mind that military nuclear facilities in Iran are about one kilometer deep under mountains; therefore, such method will not work. It is expected that such method would destroy economical infrastructure instead of destroying nuclear weapons. It is expected that Iran’s expected reaction will be to increase counter attacks on American forces in the region and attack on Israel expected after the latest Arab Israel conflict. It could be resulted in more civilian causalities.
It is expected that America would avid such conflict benefiting the Israel. He opined that fourth option to destabilize the Iranian government is going to be impossible day by day. In the beginning after revolution a number loyal opposition members were with the United States politicians but now the US influence has diminished because of their religious background. Islamic revolution in Iran and loyalty of the Iranian people with their government shows that Iranian government could not be easily changed. Now the United States is working on a quite unique idea, which has not been used in the American history.
America has increased the budget to educate the next Iranian politician generation so that they may realize the realities of the new world. Iran’s Foreign Policy The Iranian foreign policy has three major concerns and these are relations with Israel, Arab States and the United States. Iran is thankful to the United States for imposing military sanctions during the Iran-Iraq war due to which the Iranian military industry has become a very productive industry and one of the countries who produces its entire necessary weapons locally. Iran consists on different segments of society. Present government is a religious one.
The Ahmadi Nejad government was a member of Guardian Army of Islamic Revolution is a militaristic one. They all were planning to unite all Muslim countries into one like European countries and they were dreaming to rule that united Islamic country but Iran and Iraq war spoiled their dreams. Majority of the Iranian hates Arabs but the government is trying to make good relations with Arab countries. Before becoming a separate country Arabs speaking states like Bahrain or UAE were originally parts of Iran by the UK support. Osama bin laden and Saddam Hussain had the same idea in their minds.
Majority of the Muslim countries hate Israel. The aggression and atrocities committed by Israel especially on Palestinians is overwhelmingly covered by Iranian media and majority of Iranian support government idea toward Israel. Very few Iranians who hate Arabs support for having good relations with Israel. Iran’s policy toward the United States is very bad, and it’s all due to bad policies adopted by the United States. One the one hand, the United States giving right to Israel to have nuclear capability and not allowing Iran to possess such capability even for peaceful purposes, as claimed by Iran.
The United States openly favours anti Iran elements in the world. The United States gave asylum to Shah of Iran, which created embarrassing situation for Iran, although the asylum was provided for medical treatment but everybody knows that background of asylum was different. One is one the big countries possessing oil reserves. A number of countries in the world do not favor the United States due to these reasons as they are getting oil supply from Iran. One of the elements hated by the United States government is an Islamic element in the Iran’s government.
After the Islamic revolution carried out by Ayatullah Khomeni, Iran is adopting Islamic policies and trying to bring the Islamic countries more closely and provide help in different shapes to the Islamic countries. Iran never cared about the sanctions imposed by the United States and even bothers to pay any attention to the requirement made by the United States regarding nuclear conflict. Iran claims to be its legitimate right. The United States has even threatened Iran for war but Iran has not bowed down before these threats.
Time has proved that majority of policies adopted by the United States against Islamic countries failed because of biased and prejudiced policies. U. S Faces Crossroads on Iran Policy The pressure regarding settlement of Iran is increasing day by day on Bush’s administration. The United States has not been able to adopt desired policy against Iran even after more than three years. The Untied States had suspect of Al-Qaeda penetration via Iran but later on the United States CIA director denied the same. He said there is no evidence proving any link between 9/11 attack and Iran.
The United States has also complaint with Iran giving illegal passage to anti US elements in Iraq and Afghanistan. In response of this objection/ complaint Iran’s foreign minister said due to extra long border such complaint cannot be completely eliminated. The United States has also complained Iran for using Al-Qaeda for violence. Some fair members in the United States government want to end a quarter-century long relation and begin new diplomatic policies with Iran. The United States should try to do a fair deal with current government of Iran rather wait for it to fall or to make it fall.
U. S Policy and Iran’s Nuclear Challenges The United States of America has used its almost all efforts except war to refrain Iran from possessing nuclear capability, even the United States has been using the help of its allied to stop Iran from doing such activities but so far have failed to yield satisfactory results. Iran claim to possess nuclear capability is unacceptable to the Untied States and its allies. On the international pressure in 2003 Iran temporarily freeze its uranium enrichment activities and agreed for United Nations Inspectors inspection (IAEA).
It was done on the fear of Iran that in case of non-compliance referral to the United Nations by the US and its allies could ultimately result in diplomatic isolation, levy of economic sanctions or even possible military attach on Iran. The same was done by US led coalitions forces in Iraq in 2003. The situation temporarily defused the crisis. The United States continue to reiterate its requirement for rolling back or giving full-fledged inspection of the nuclear producing sites.
Iran cleverly used the importance of its oil exporting wealth and used China and Russia for giving air for negotiations, as Russia and China have the veto powers. According to the United States secretary for the Political Affairs, Mr. Nicholas Burns that the United States is strongly against Tehran for acquiring the nuclear weapons capability. Iran’s desire to possess nuclear capability is against the policy of peace and security of the Untied States, friends and allied and also against the stability of the entire region.
According to him Iran’s ambitions and track record of nuclear capability “is troubling including an 18-year history of trying to hide from the world a clandestine enrichment program, undeclared plutonium separation experiments, and other suspicious activities, as reported by IAEA”. Iran did not inform the world about such activities and hide all matters regarding nuclear capabilities; therefore, according to him Iran cannot be trusted. Iran also used the international community EU-3 and tried to divide the international community.
We want that Iran must not be permitted to develop the capability to make or deliver nuclear weapons. Tehran should adhere to its international commitments. (http://www. state. gov/p/us/rm/2005/46528. htm) Mr. Richard Armitage, Deputy Secretary of United States also pays attention “to the poor human rights conditions in Iran as well as nuclear weapons program and chemical and biological weapons programs, support for terrorism and interventions in regional politics, particularly Arab Israel peace process”.
Richard says such behaviors; Iran’s corrupt government economic policies and getting nuclear capability shakes the confidence of International community and deny the legitimate right of Iranian people for enjoying rich human and natural resources. (http://www. state. gov/s/d/former/armitage/remarks/25682. htm) Conclusion Both Iran and the United States of America are experiencing mot worse relations with each other. Both are adopting embarrassing policies not acceptable to each other.
The United States is adopting discriminate standard treating Iran in connection with nuclear capability as the United States does not adopt the same procedure /standard for Israel. Iran demands the same criteria for all the countries. Iran says that if anyone country is allowed to possess nuclear capabilities than every country should have the option to possess such capability or no one. In fact the United sees the Iran’s capability in the background of Israel and also does no ignore the Islamic elements. According to the United States the Islamic fundamentalists may use such nuclear weapons.
In the yes of the United States atrocities and injustice done with the people of Afghanistan and Iraq has not importance. Other people are terrorists in the eyes of United States. For the sake of good relations both countries should adopt fair policies and should give the air to appropriate policies, which will be beneficial for regional territory also.
United States Policy Toward Iran: Can Sanctions Work http://72. 14. 253. 104/search? q=cache:gj8if2iDkXAJ:www. rice. edu/energy/publications/docs/UnlockingtheAssets_USPolicyTowardIran_CanSanctionsWork.
pdf+US+policy+for+Iran&hl=en&gl=pk&ct=clnk&cd=10 Retrieved on 15. 12. 2006. U. S. Policy Towards Iran: 25 Years Of Denial http://www. capmag. com/article. asp? ID=4025 Retrieved on 15. 12. 2006. FtoI: The US Policy toward Iran http://freethoughts. org/archives/000832. php Retrieved on 15. 12. 2006. U. S. Faces a Crossroads on Iran Policy (Washington. com) Page-1 http://www. washingtonpost. com/wp-dyn/articles/A60286-2004Jul18. html Retrieved on 15. 12. 2006. U. S. Faces a Crossroads on Iran Policy (Washington. com) Page-2 http://www. washingtonpost. com/wp-dyn/articles/A60286-2004Jul18_2. html Retrieved on 15. 12. 2006.Sample Essay of EduBirdie.com