Using Animals for Research
As the world unfolds, the discipline of research continues to develop. Through research, man is able to develop more knowledge about the universe. Considerably, man has continued to use animals for various purposes amongst which are; for food, research, purposes, entertainment, job performance above others use. However, the core issue of this paper will only be limited to the use of animals for the research purposes. The subject matter of this paper has continued to draw diversity into the implication of the use of animals for research purposes. Respectively, the argument is built in a two plain of debate.
At one point, some people argue of the legitimacy and the positive implication in the same. The extreme contrast argument to this is on the illegitimacy in the use of animals for research activity. Since a balance of agreement has failed to work, the subject can argued under a plane of debate on the authenticity of both grounds. From Miller (1985) however, some three basic and statutory studies can be learned in relation to the aspect of research on animals and its benefits to man. Firstly, animal research plays a subordinate role in provide an important support in his lively hood.
Through the research findings from animal researchers, man has been able to find a permanent refuge about treatment of diseases affecting him, various health therapies among others. Therefore, research on animals by man provide a package if comprehensive results about his livelihood. On the other level, research activity by man is important for the biodiversity and the enriching in the animal physiology. Through a detailed research support on the animals, man is able to develop and expand to a greater depth the material characters of the animals’ physiology. (Shampoo, Resnik, 2002)
Either, in due process to form research basis of the animals, human beings should understand and evaluate the various relations that he has with the animals. At different levels, man relates differently with the animals. They interact together to make the broad sense ecosystem. A behavioral support that provides an adequate association between the two should be provided. Summarily therefore, the relationship between man and the animals may work to provide/foster various attributes in to the broad symmetry which defines their relationship. 2. The world’s package of knowledge is comparatively growing broader.
The aspect of research has been in the fore front to provide a conducive environment for such a research activity. Man has explored the scientific contemporaries into research about various issues affecting him and the broad animal fraternity. At the finest argument, we can appreciate the benefit that research activities by man do to animal. Various benefits have accompanied the research findings done by man to the animals. They have been used to pursue a positive contribution to their existence. Through various research findings, man is able to study the behavioral characteristics of the animals which help him to relate well with them.
In the interaction phenomena, between man and the animals, research results may be used to provide a more cohesive interlink between the two. At one level, animals may be destructive to man through various destructive attributes. (Fossim, et al, 2000) Behavioral research on animals has drawn a diversity of attributes in regard to their benefits. Perhaps the most crucial foundation of behavioral benefits is on the lethal control. This is where one animal species can be used to provide a variety of benefits through safeguarding the negative impacts of other animals to him.
However, the most attributable animal research study can be allied to Ebbinghaus (in 1885-1913). His study methodology captured the method of anticipation. This continues to become the basic technique in the modern research activities. The good results for this research activity were seen through the motivation and the good reward system for subject studies. With the diversity into the evolution theory, great concern on the probable similarities in behavior pursuits between man and animals emerged. The next development was diversity into the reports about animals.
Perhaps, the most pronounced experiment was by Thorndike in 1989 who chose to study about behavioral aspects of animals. His experimental analysis comprised of placing hungry kittens in a certain experimental cage. A response variable of string loop through which the door of the cage would be opened when such loop was pulled was set. Outside the cage were a variety of foods which the same hungry kittens would feed on while out of the cage. In the result of his experiment, the finding were that the animals made various irrelevant responses in the short run before arriving at the most optimal and relevant response.
Consequently the final implication was a reward which was the release of the food. Within the response process, such rewarding response becomes the progressive array throughout their attempt to finally yield the same as the most standard response. The implication of this experiment was that, through animal behavior system, various rewarding responses were developed due to the inability of adequate performance as well as adequacy in learning without an authentic drive. Improvements to this research experiment got further improvement in 1938 by Skinner. (Miller, 1985) 3.
The ethical parameters of animal research activities can be fundamentally argued on a plane of debate. The next question by a rational being is, “is animal research ethically upright? ” At my personal level, such a research activity is perhaps one of the greatest attribute to knowledge development by man. Various research activities are done on animals. The research findings from such studies are highly important in the development of knowledge about human relations to diversity in livelihood phenomena. The basic concept on animal research is on their behavior therapy and conditions.
The next underlying concept in animal behavior research is that, various responses are produced by the animals in adaptation to the rewards or motivation they would consequently get from such responses. At one point, such research findings can be argued to provide ethical prospects to both the animals’ fraternity and the man himself. (Boitani, Foler, 2000) The basic underlying implication on animal research is that animals will produce various responses in the pursuit of the rewards or motivation they would get from such responses.
On the other hand, the responses are only credited to specific conditions which provide a comprehensive package of stimuli for the same responses. Either, the adequacy of the response is not limited to the package rewards or motivations. However, the same response undergoes a shaping process through which an approximated level of reward is successively added in the originally desired level. Consequently, a higher performance level could even be reinforced without a typical reward for every specific response. This was result findings by Skinner in (1938).
Through the work by Parlor in 1927, had the research findings that there is a higher effect by unconditioned stimulus than for a conditioned one. Therefore, unconditioned stimulus acted to weaken the characters of the formerly conditioned trials. Though this set of research findings done on animals the same can be likened to man. The ethical implication of animal research followed a suit into the developmental implications which were brought out from the research activities. 4. Ideally, the lonely isolation to Maggie at the cold climate in the zoo acts to undermine its rights.
It can be argued that non-human animals just like the man deserves a set of rights in their living if the subject matter of ecosystem is to prevail. Otherwise, Maggie is a representative of the diverse animal fraternity within the same ecosystem whose interaction provides a phenomenon of balance for the continuity and evolution of the animal kingdom. Changing environmental circumstances and interaction between animals is ideally a potential phenomenon in providing a revolution in the ecosystem. The environmental structures within the ecosystem acts to provide evolution.
Evolutionary results are the balance of adaptations which are provided as response variable to the changing environment. Consequently, the long held elephant (Maggie) at its sole level is concise denial of such interaction critiques with the other elephants and the general ecosystem within the zoo. Perhaps, Maggie would not be the same if let to interact freely with the external environment. Elsewhere, if the subject matter of progressive response for the rewards is valid, why should Maggie be denied of its right to enjoy such privilege?
The elephant would perhaps be experiencing its current livelihood shortcomings due to the denial of been free. Elsewhere, the environment provided within the cage is described a cold and perhaps limited to other fundamentals which are basic for adequacy in its living. The potentiality in its success like any other animal is limited to some basic conditions which are lacking in its zoo environment. Therefore, if subject matter of the former research findings is to be held as implicative, Maggie should be let free to interact with the ecosystem for various responses allied to its living.
Otherwise the validity of ecosystem would be limited in its meaning if individual within it were to be constantly denied of the freedom above breach of their rights. 5. From a rational argument, man cannot prevail in the isolation of animals within his environment. Various activities both constructive and destructive to man by animals define the content of ecosystem. Otherwise, an imbalance would be the next implication in an environment where man and animals were isolated from one another or animals were absent.
Ideally, man has found refuge of success in his life and an interesting atmosphere through a concise interaction between him and the animals. The implication in use of animals by man is a diverse phenomena with its roots embedded in the framework of such uses. Perhaps, the choice of animals for research would open up this list of uses for a rational scholar. With the understanding of the research implications on various aspects of his life, man has employed animals as experimental units for his research activities.
Consequently, the same findings have been carried forward in formulating various results pertaining different areas of his life. Leisure and entertainment occupies a comparatively high place in man. Animals have consequently been used to provide an adequate package of entertainment. This could be through tourist travels in the parks, pets, horse-racing above others. Either, tourism has continued to grow most of the states economies from the aspect of well modeled animal parks that attract people for their leisure and entertainment activities.
(Mcneely, 2003) Animals continue to be a chief source of food for man. Various animals products such as meat, milk and eggs, have being a supplement of food for man. Most of these products are a chief source of proteins to man’s diet. Medicinal and treatment therapies sourced from animal should never be overlooked. Through research activities, animal products have provided a medicinal package to man. The choice for these products is from both domestic as well as wildlife animals
Boitani, L. & Fuller, T. K. (Eds. ). (2000).Research Techniques in Animal Ecology: Controversies and Consequences. New York: Columbia University Press. Retrieved November 7, 2007, from Questia database: http://www. questia. com/PM. qst? a=o&d=100882669 Fossum, D. , Painter, L. S. , Williarns, V. , Yezril, A. , Newton, E. , & Trinkle, D. (2000). Discovery and Innovation: Federal Research and Development Activities in the Fifty States, District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. Santa Monica, CA: Rand. Retrieved November 7, 2007, from Questia database: http://www. questia. com/PM. qst? a=o&d=103998903Sample Essay of EduBirdie.com