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Vietnam War in Vietnamese and American Perspectives

Vietnam’s struggle towards freedom caused different forms of obstacles and sufferings. The Vietnamese waited for three decades to obtain their sovereignty in their own country. To be able to acquire their freedom, there are several procedures that they need to promulgate – both activists and anti-wars – to change their society. Based on facts and historical evidences, the military and political people during the period of Vietnam Wars have their own ways of initiating power and authority.

Aside from making the country more viable in social and political conditions, the authority especially Ngo Dinh Diem created some irrelevant attacks against his enemies to overpower the whole South Vietnam. Because of Diem’s illogical governance, many people used their anger and opposition to revolt against him. This became the main reason why people choose to create a war rather than keeping their lives peaceful and normal. The French colony strived so hard to win the battle against Vietnam and conquer the whole country.

However, after a long journey and struggle against the Vietnamese people, they had to leave the country because they were crushed by the Vietnam troops. That is why the Geneva Peace Agreement is promulgated but it did not cause an ideal source of all-out war. This agreement served as the indirect authority of Vietnam towards its own society. “Because of outside pressures brought to bear by the Soviet Union and the People’s Republic of China, Vietnam’s delegates to the Geneva conference agreed to the temporary partition of their nation at the seventeenth parallel (Vassar College, 2007).

” However, aside from this conformity, an election was held in 1956. From this election, the division of the Seventeenth Parallel will be eliminated. Therefore, it is the Vietnam’s authority to govern the said partition. Ngo Dinh Diem, the president of the South Vietnam in 1956 became the most significant person during the period. He opened the door for United States’ plans and actions against the communist people who revolted against Diem, his whole government and allies.

He also started the main conflict that led to revolution and differences of ideologies and beliefs of the Vietnamese people. Due to Diem’s actions, uncertain policies and rules, the New Liberation Front was established to fight for the freedom and serenity of Vietnam. Because of Diem’s alleged attacks and tactics against his communist enemies, the United States started to become involved through isolation of people, building of machineries and technological devices for the war and conquering the whole Vietnam for liberty and ‘peace. ’

Hanoi the suspected establisher of the National Liberated Front had many things to offer during the three decades of war in Vietnam. He and his men did not surrender against the United States government and yet, they fight until the last moment of war. They are the assumed hero of Vietnam War for they won the battle against Johnson, Kennedy, and Nixon’s attacks. The long awaited freedom of Vietnam started to emerge during Nixon’s presidency. Hanoi, the NLF, and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) joined their forces to win the battle.

Nixon’s “Vietnamization” or the concept of isolating the enemies to stay in the jungles and to be inexistent in the cities of Vietnam did not also made a success for the United States. The NLF is not afraid with the bombings and attacks of the United States because they felt that America will soon surrender against their power and authority. After a long struggle and battle between the United States and Vietnam, the Paris Peace Agreement is signed by both sides to stop the war and to make Vietnam a free country from all forms of colonization.

United States Government Perspective The United States government during Johnson, Kennedy, and Nixon’s presidency becomes involved because of many factors. The United States did not agree with the Geneva Peace Agreement between France and Vietnam. Because the United States is a powerful ally of France, it does not want France to lose from the battle and ownership of Vietnam. The involvement of the United States government becomes stronger after Ngo Dinh Diem seeks for their help to defeat the North Vietnam.

Diem’s overpower and irrational policies gave the United States an advantage and opportunity to immerse in Vietnam and create some plans for the possible attacks against the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) and the National Liberation Front (NLF). Through this, the weaker the president of the South Vietnam has become, the stronger the capability of the United States to implement its attacks against the enemies. That is why, the United States perceived more percentage of acquiring Vietnam but at the end, they lose the battle.

The Pentagon Military evolved and escalate through several immersions in Vietnam. They have isolated the Vietnamese civilians in their pentagons. They also struggle to fight against the enemies in land but soon started to think of better way – the concept of air bombings. Through air bombing, the NLF will hide in the jungle. Consequently, opposition against the government will be eliminated. The Pentagon Military made some significant bombing attacks instead of fighting in the land.

The main agenda of the Pentagon Military is to stop the NLF and DRV from consecutive attacks even if it may cause death to many civilians. Therefore, the tactics brought more probabilities in making the NLF and DRV suffer. After a long involvement and struggle of the United States to fight against Vietnam, the only option for them to extricate from the ‘quagmire’ is the Paris Peace Agreement. They could not conquer the whole country for many reasons. They could not also surrender their battle grounds without acquiring an important battle.

That is why the Peace Agreement is the only answer to the three decades historical war that emerged in Vietnam. Though it seems that the United States made an agreement with the NLF through Paris Peace Accord, they still surrender themselves and power in an indirect concept. They did not want to accept that they could not conquer the whole Vietnam in whatever form of strategy they have but it was logically seen by many analysts and critics of the Vietnam Wars. Based on a personal opinion, it can be said that the United States thought that they are powerful enough to conquer a small country like Vietnam.

They never thought that after many experiences in different wars, they will be defeated by a country that was colonized by France, one of their allies. Based on facts and evidences, the three presidents who took place during the three decades war did not think of further strategies to fight against the NLF and DRV. They just made several attacks without any concrete plans that will help to eliminate the problems in Vietnam. As what the trend of Vietnam’s history, the only main and basic conflict was Diem’s governance.

However, because the United States did not want to make the communist parties the dominating authority in Vietnam, it started to involve itself. The United States’ hidden agenda towards Vietnam is seen in many factors because it did not help solved the problem but also ruined the whole country as well. As what the history has written, it can be seen that Vietnam is not a simple and normal country. It has its own dignity and pride that no one could obtain but only Vietnam. The effects of these occurrences in United States society and politics are terrible but somehow a realization of truth.

The United States became more aware of its enemies in any aspect. Before it runs through a battle, the country is always making sure that they have several options and choices. United States’ power and authority created more allies to become more influential to defeat their enemies. However, the negative side of this is that the United States always aimed for victory – not for the betterment of its people but for personal corroboration of pride and authority.


Vassar College. (2007). “Vietnam War: Overview. ” Retrieved 11 October 2008. http://vietnam. vassar. edu/overview. html

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