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Waste Disposal

A garbage disposal or garburator (Canadian English) or waste disposal unit (English) is an electrically powered device installed under a kitchen sink between the sink’s drain and the trap. It shreds food waste into very small pieces so that they can be passed through the plumbing without clogging. Also called a food waste disposal, they are sold in North America under brand names like “Waste King” and “In-Sink-Erator”, the largest manufacturer of garbage disposals in North America. In Europe, they have some appeal and more are being installed in modern developments.

There are, however, strict regulations on their installation and use in many countries. Some effluent disposal systems are not suitable for use with a kitchen waste disposal unit. Factors that had made this a problem The disposal of garbage in the world is a problem that continues to grow with the development of industrialized nations and the growth of population. Since the beginning of time people have needed to find a way of disposing of their trash. In 18th century England and France, Carter’s were paid by individuals to carry trash and discard it on the outskirts of town.

Disposal in open pits became routine and Benjamin Franklin initiated the first municipal cleaning program in Philadelphia in 1757. Since then we have come a long way and have developed types of waste that cannot simply be dumped into a hole. Since people are continuing to live in varieties of ways and means, firms and many other establishments are producing variety of goods and products to accommodate the needs of every individual. People work in order to live. Thus to continue living, we must eat and be healthy.

Such products that we take in have waste materials like can goods, junk foods, and others that are said to be non-biodegradable garbage. With this, the more we live, the more waste and garbage’s we produce for thousands of generations and at this very moment has become one of the biggest problems in the entire world.. TYPES OF WASTE Waste can be divided into many different types. The most common methods of classification is by their physical, chemical and biological characteristics. One important classification is by their consistency. Solid wastes are waste materials that contain less than 70% water.

This class includes such materials as household garbage, some industrial wastes, some mining wastes, and oilfield wastes such as drill cuttings. Liquid wastes are usually wastewater’s that contain less than 1% solids. Such wastes may contain high concentrations of dissolved salts and metals. Sludge is a class of waste between liquid and solid. They usually contain between 3% and 25% solids, while the rest of the material is water dissolved materials. Waste Treatment There are a variety of waste treatment technologies. The long established method of waste treatment is simply landfill. Other technologies include composting and recycling.

There are also a number of new and emerging waste treatment technologies, which are able to treat a variety of waste streams. There is a move away from treating waste as a disposal problem towards recognising waste contains valuable resources that can be recovered. Recovery of value from waste can either be in the form of recovery of resources or recovery of energy. There are many different methods of disposing of waste. Landfill is the most common and probably accounts for more than 90 percent of the nation’s municipal refuse even though Landfills have been proven contaminates of drinking water in certain areas.

It is the most cost affective method of disposal, with collection and transportation accounting for 75 percent of the total cost. In a modern landfill, refuse is spread thin, compacted layers covered by a layer of clean earth. Pollution of surface water and groundwater is minimized by lining and contouring the fill, compacting and planting the uppermost cover layer, diverting drainage, and selecting proper soil in sites not subject to flooding or high groundwater levels. The best soil for a landfill is clay because clay is less permeable than other types of soil.

Materials disposed of in a landfill can be further secured from leakage by solidifying them in materials such as cement, fly ash from power plants, asphalt, or organic polymers. Because of too much waste to be disposed properly from time to time, local governments were implementing policies to lessen the production of this problem. Several methods on proper disposal of waste have been established and several inventions were made to reduce its productivity. A waste hierarchy has been made to minimize this waste problem.

The waste hierarchy refers to the “3 Rs” reduce, reuse and recycle, which classify waste management strategies according to their desirability in terms of waste minimization. The waste hierarchy remains the cornerstone of most waste minimization strategies. The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of waste. This simple yet effective waste hierarchy measures the cost of reducing this problem. It cost cheaper in prize since it is the people who do the job to make it work. Discipline and constant practice for this can greatly benefit the reduction of waste.

Evidence currently available on the benefits and cost of dealing this problem. Managing municipal waste, industrial waste and commercial waste has traditionally consisted of collection, followed by disposal. Depending upon the type of waste and the area, a level of processing may follow collection. This processing may be to reduce the hazard of the waste, recover material for recycling, produce energy from the waste, or reduce it in volume for more efficient disposal. a. Landfill Disposing of waste in a landfill is the most traditional method of waste disposal, and it remains a common practice in most countries.

Historically, landfills were often established in disused quarries, mining voids or borrows pits. A properly designed and well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and relatively inexpensive method of disposing of waste materials in a way that minimizes their impact on the local environment. Older, poorly designed or poorly-managed landfills can create a number of adverse environmental impacts such as wind-blown litter, attraction of vermin, and generation of leachate which can pollute groundwater and surface water.

Another byproduct of landfills is landfill gas (mostly composed of methane and carbon dioxide), which is produced as organic waste breaks down anaerobically. This gas can create odor problems, kill surface vegetation, and is a greenhouse gas. b. Incineration:( Incineration and Waste-to-energy) A waste-to-energy plant (WtE) is a modern term for an incinerator that burns wastes in high-efficiency furnace/boilers to produce steam and/or electricity and incorporates modern air pollution control systems and continuous emissions monitors.

This type of incinerator is sometimes called an energy-from-waste (EfW) facility. Incineration is popular in countries such as Japan where land is a scarce resource, as they do not consume as much area as a landfill. Sweden has been a leader in using the energy generated from incineration over the past 20 years. Denmark also extensively uses waste-to-energy incineration in localized combined heat and power facilities supporting district heating schemes. c. Resource recovery: (Materials recovery facility and waste picker)

A materials recovery facility, where different materials are separated and recovered A relatively recent idea in waste management has been to treat the waste material as a resource to be exploited, instead of simply a challenge to be managed and disposed of. There are a number of different methods by which resources may be extracted from waste: the materials may be extracted and recycled, or the calorific content of the waste may be converted to electricity. The process of extracting resources or value from waste is variously referred to as secondary resource recovery, recycling, and other terms.

The practice of treating waste materials as a resource is becoming more common, especially in metropolitan areas where space for new landfills is becoming scarcer. There is also a growing acknowledgement that simply disposing of waste materials is unsustainable in the long term, as there is a finite supply of most raw materials. d. Recycling Recycling means to recover for other use a material that would otherwise be considered waste. The popular meaning of ‘recycling’ in most developed countries has come to refer to the widespread collection and reuse of various everyday waste materials.

They are collected and sorted into common groups, so that the raw materials from these items can be used again (recycled). However, most economic systems do not account for the benefits to the environment of recycling these materials, compared with extracting virgin materials. It usually requires significantly less energy, water and other resources to recycle materials than to produce new materials [1]. For example, recycling 1000 kg of aluminum cans saves approximately 5000 kg of bauxite ore being mined (source: ALCOA Australia) and prevents the generation of 15.

17 tons CO2eq greenhouse gases [2]; recycling steel saves about 95% of the energy used to refine virgin ore (source: U. S. Bureau of Mines). e. Consumer vs. Machine Waste Separation In many areas, material for recycling is collected separately from general waste, with dedicated bins and collection vehicles. Other waste management processes recover these materials from general waste streams. This usually results in greater levels of recovery than separate collections of consumer-separated beverage containers, but are more complex and expensive. f. Composting and anaerobic digestion

Active compost heapWaste materials that are organic in nature, such as plant material, food scraps, and paper products, are increasingly being recycled. These materials are put through a composting and/or digestion system to control the biological process to decompose the organic matter and kill pathogens. The resulting stabilized organic material is then recycled as mulch or compost for agricultural or landscaping purposes. g. Pyrolysis & gasification Pyrolysis and gasification are two related forms of thermal treatment where waste materials are heated to high temperatures with limited oxygen availability.

The process typically occurs in a sealed vessel under high pressure. Converting material to energy this way is more efficient than direct incineration, with more energy able to be recovered and used. Pyrolysis of solid waste converts the material into solid, liquid and gas products. The liquid oil and gas can be burnt to produce energy or refined into other products. The solid residue (char) can be further refined into products such as activated carbon. Gasification is used to convert organic materials directly into a synthetic gas (syngas) composed of carbon monoxide and hydrogen.

The gas is then burnt to produce electricity and steam. Gasification is used in biomass power stations to produce renewable energy and heat. Measuring the cost in reducing this problem This is quite a big problem to be accomplished in just a week or months but rather for lifetime. There are two alternative ways in reducing this problem. One is the manual work and the other one is the technology works in which converting waste into energy. It’s too difficult to measure because this problem continues to evolve from time to time.

Tons of wastes and residue materials per year, impacting air and water quality, decreasing land values, limiting future use of land, and increasing costs to municipalities, industry, and ultimately the consumer. Municipalities, industrial facilities, and universities are particularly challenged in managing the increasing volumes of all kinds of wastes. Let’s take the example of a company that manufactures paper products — from writing paper to cardboard boxes — at a factory location on a river. The problem is that, as a by-product of its manufacturing operations, the factory dumps chemical pollutants into the river.

But no single person or entity owns the river water, so there is no one to force the company to stop polluting. Moreover, since cleaning up the river would cost money, the company can sell its paper products more cheaply than if it had to absorb such pollution-control costs. As a result, the Paper Company can further increase its output, responding to the relatively higher demand at its lower prices, leading to more waste and pollution from its factory. By polluting without penalties, the company may also have an unfair advantage over competitors whose paper products do reflect the cost of installing pollution control equipment.

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