Ways of Knowing In Science
The basis of the research paper is to identify and integrate `the scientific method`, `ways of knowing in specific natural science disciplines`, and `ways of knowing in specific social and behavioral science disciplines`. Introduction “Science is a human effort to devise a way of thinking about the world and then using that way of thinking to conceive of theories that are logical representations of our sense experiences. Such theories are the most logical and economical means of representing past, present, and future events.
The business of science is to trace in physical phenomena a consistent structure with order and meaning, and in this way to interpret and to transcend our direct experiences. ” (Evans, 1995) There are different ways of knowing things but some are true and some are irrelevant. Through Science it can be found that what is right and what is wrong. There are some kinds of rules made by the scientist to research about the knowledge and provide the other people with true information. Science investigates deeply and provides accurate information or knowledge. “The Standards rest on the premise that science is an active process.
Learning science is something that students do, not something that is done to them. In this way, students actively develop their understanding of science by combining scientific knowledge with reasoning and thinking skills. ” (http://www. nap. edu/readingroom/books/nses/overview. html) Other Way of knowing The debates have been going on to find out “is there any other way of knowing? ” apart from science. “In the theological realm, there are those who believe that ethical and moral values can only have entered and become a part of so many world societies by revelation from the Deity.
In the artistic realm, it is thought that aesthetic values arise not from reason and empiricism as does science, but through enlightenment imposed by our particular collective experiences as human beings. ” (Evans, 1995) Science is the way through which scientist can find other way of knowing. Its one of the powerful study without which no theories of methodologies can be exists. “Science is a way of knowing, but it is not the only way. Knowledge also derives from other sources, such as common sense, artistic and religious experience, and philosophical reflection” (http://www.meta-library. net/evolution/know-body.html)
Every study is related to science. No difference can be found between science and non science. In early centuries the way of knowing were through the perceptions and what was going on in front of there eyes. “The validity of the knowledge acquired by non-scientific modes of inquiry can be simply established by pointing out that science dawned in the sixteenth century, but humanity had for centuries built cities and roads, brought forth political institutions and sophisticated codes of law, advanced profound philosophies and value systems, and created magnificent plastic art, as well as music and literature.
” (http://www. meta-library. net/evolution/know-body. html) Methods of knowing through Science There are different methods through which knowledge can be known. There are four types of methods: 1. Assessment: In assessment first the data should be collected in raw form and then present it in an understandable form. “Assessment refers to the collection of data to describe or better understand an issue” (Huitt, 2004) There are different ways of collecting a data explained by Thondike and Hagen: • Data can be collected through questionnaire, surveys, research, Interviews etc.
• Data can also be collected through systematic observation. The observer can watch the activities going on and observe them “but is not involved in the actions being observed” (Thondike and Hagen,1986) • Other way is the participant observation, in which the observer is also included and observing the activities to later write the data on the paper. • Specialist collects the data in the clinics when the patient is under treatment. 2. Measurement: Measurement is the method of selecting useful information which collected from the assessment.
“The process of quantifying observations [or descriptions] about a quality or attribute of a thing or person” (Thondike and Hagen, 1986) “The process of measurement involves three steps: • identifying and defining the quality or attribute that is to be measured; • determining a set of operations by which the attribute may be made manifest and perceivable; and • Establishing a set of procedures or definitions for translating observations into quantitative statements of degree or amount. ” (Thondike and Hagen, 1986) 1.
Research: Research processes then conduct by the researcher to better understand the data for the user. Research makes the material more clear and readable. “Research refers to the use of data for the purpose of describing, predicting, and controlling as a means toward better understanding the phenomena under consideration” (Huitt, 2004) 2. Evaluation: In the end the research work is evaluated that is it useful and able to furnish all the information which is necessary for the methodology. Difference between Natural and behavioral Sciences:
A natural science is the study about the whole universe. It provides all the information about the laws and orders which are formed by the god. “Together, the natural and applied sciences are distinguished from the social sciences on the one hand, and from the humanities, theology and the arts on the other. Mathematics, statistics and computer science are not natural sciences, but provide many tools and frameworks used within the natural sciences. ” (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Natural_science)
On the other hand behavioral science is connected with the study about the behaviors of all the creatures on this earth and how they use to socialize them selves. “It involves the systematic analysis and investigation of human and animal behavior through controlled and naturalistic experimental observations and rigorous formulations. ” (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Behavioral_science) Conclusion In the end, “Science is a very human way of thinking, albeit a very sophisticated method of thinking, about the physical aspects of human existence.
Science is tentative, fallible, and limited, but it has been surprisingly fruitful in helping us deal with the question of whether or not there is any purpose for our existence. ” (Evans, 1995) The scientific knowledge which new scientists are providing is marvelous. In every phase one scientist is disagreed with other but through these conflicts new methodologies are coming up. And by the passing of generations new ways will be introduced and rule on the world of science.
Huitt, W. (1999, October). Measurement. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta State University.http://chiron. valdosta. edu/whuitt/col/intro/measure. html Accessed on October 30, 2006 Huitt, W. (2004). Assessment, measurement, evaluation & research: Science: A way of knowing. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University http://chiron. valdosta. edu/whuitt/col/intro/science. html Accessed on October 30, 2006 Lesson Plan: Day 20 http://www. unc. edu/~srwood/engl4/engl4unit3LP20. html Accessed on October 30, 2006 Thorndike, R. , & Hagen, E. Measurement and evaluation in psychology and education (4th ed. ). New York: Wiley. (1986). Accessed on October 30, 2006 http://www.meta-library.net/evolution/know-body.htmlSample Essay of Essayontime.com