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Women and Ethnic Minorities

1) Youth Revolt – Several students studying in universities joined resistances and helped fought for “civil rights” generally and “rights and status of African Americans” specifically (Tindall et. al. , 2007, p. 1267). “Marches, protests, and sacrifices” were carried out to attain “justice, freedom, and equality” for those who are discriminated against including the following: “1) women; 2) Native Americans; 3) Hispanics; and 4) Homosexuals” (Tindall et. al. , 2007, p. 1267). 2) The New Left – “Individual freedom” should be upheld (Tindall et. al. , 2007, p. 1268).

This belief led students to form the “free-speech” movement wherein they attended to various issues including “ROTC, curfews, dormitory regulations” etcetera (Tindall et. al. , 2007, p. 1268). 3) The Counterculture – During the time of the “counterculture”, it is as if the people are free to do anything they want – take in drugs, have sex, swim without any clothes on etcetera (Tindall et. al. , 2007, pp. 1272 – 1274). 4) Feminism – “Betty Friedan” started to fight for women’s rights through a book she published (Tindall et. al. , 2007, p. 1274).

Gender roles were somehow taken out of the box because of her advocacy; for instance, women were given jobs instead of forcing them to just stay at home (Tindall et. al. , 2007, p. 1274). 5) The Sexual Revolution and the Pill – Options to control pregnancy were launched and pills were the most famous back then (Tindall et. al. , 2007, pp. 1276 – 1277). 6) Hispanic Rights – “Cesar Chavez” organized farm workers to boycott their jobs and fasted with him for about 3 weeks which led to increased salaries and augmented number of aspirants for the presidency (Tindall et. al. , 2007, pp. 1279 – 1280).

7) Native Americans – Indians went to court to fight for their “tribal rights”, increased salary, etcetera (Tindall et. al. , 2007, pp. 1281 – 1282). 8) Gay Rights – Gays were inspired and motivated to “come out” to fight for just treatment (Tindall et. al. , 2007, p. 1282). 9) Gradual Withdrawal – The United States kept on with it war with Vietnam and when that took awhile to stop, the former started to attack “Cambodian Communists forces” (Tindall et. al. , 2007, p. 1286).

10) Divisions at Home – “The Pentagon Papers”, which states that the US does not actually plan to end the war actually, “leaked to the press” (Tindall et. al. , 2007, p. 1287). Eventually the story has been published and the people were informed after the “Supreme Court ruled against the government” (Tindall et. al. , 2007, p. 1287). 11) War Without End – The administration announced that the war would soon end; however, “Henry Kissinger” only stated this so that “Nixon” would be reelected (Tindall et. al. , 2007, p. 1287).

12) Withdrawal from Saigon – The war ended in 1975; there was not much to celebrate about though because of the numerous people who: died, went missing, and were wounded (Tindall et. al. , 2007, p. 1289). 13) Domestic Affairs – Segregation ended because it was declared as a violation of constitutional rights (Tindall et. al. , 2007, p. 1291). 14) Economic Malaise – The US encountered economic dilemmas because it spent to much on the Vietnam War and it had problems selling its own goods because of “competitive international markets” (Tindall et. al. , 2007, p. 1293).

15) Watergate – “Political scandals” that “President Nixon” has been involved in were made known to the public (Tindall et. al. , 2007, p. 1300). II. Gains Made by Women & Ethnic Minorities in the 1960s and 70s “Women and ethnic minorities” benefited from the occurrences in 1960s and 70s. For instance, women had the chance to pursue their own careers because of “Betty Friedan” (Tindall et. al. , 2007, p. 1274). Women were no longer stuck with traditional “gender roles” wherein they were made to stay only at home (Tindall et. al. , 2007, p. 1274).

In addition to that, the rights of the Hispanics, as well as, that of Native Americans, were upheld because of “Cesar Chavez” and Indians who went to court respectively (Tindall et. al. , 2007, pp. 1279 – 1282). Both ethnic minorities experienced augmented wages after that and they came to enjoy other rights as well (Tindall et. al. , 2007, pp. 1279 – 1282). Reference Tindall, G. & Shi, D. (2007). America: A Narrative History, Brief Seventh Edition (Single- Volume Edition). New York: W. W. Norton.

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