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Copyright & the originals works

Copyright can be seen to be the ownership of any intellectual property as defined by the law of a nation or that which is international in nature. It is a government protection that is given to all the originals works of both authors of published as well as unpublished work. It should be noted that any research writing or even editing is very costly and time consuming. In the modern world for instance scientific advancement as well inventions and innovations that have been characterized by heavy technological expenditures and cost the authors very many years.

Copyright therefore ensures that such works are properly preserved for the future generations because there works are highly relied upon by every one in the modern society. Inventions also rely heavily upon their works since they generate there living. It therefore becomes very unfair for any person to break the copyright laws since the negative repercussions are not only felt by the authors but also by the entire society the society cannot do without information and authors the work provide this information.

(Loeber D A, 1984, pp 297–313) The importance of information in the society therefore requires these original works to be properly protected by the government and hence the importance of copyright. Owners can also sell or transfer a copy right to someone else it also reduces any dispute arising from the use of authors work (http://www. ipo. gov. uk/copy/c-applies/c-spoken. htm ; http://www. copyright. com/ccc/viewPage. do? pageCode=cr10-n ) II. Body A. History In the year 1662 there was an increase in the number of printers in England .

this meant that books could easily be printed with little cost and this posing a danger of piracy. The king o f England at that time intervened and for the first time book trade as well as piracy protection was established. This was by the establishment of licensing act of 1662 that required a copy of all registered books to be deposited. The depositing of the books. 00000was handled by statitioners company who where authorized to seize all books containing information that was against the government and the church.

This licensing was repeated in the year 1681 and the company passed a by-law which established ownership rights for registered books. The first worlds copy right was the statue of Anne. According to this statute the copyright was owned by the authority provided fixed term for the protection of all published works. According to this statute nine copies were supposed to be deposited to specific libraries in England. The royal commission of 1875 advised the British government to unite with United States though a copy right agreement that would provide these countries with reciprocal protection.

Later in 1886 the international copyright act of 1886 was passed soon after preparation for the Berne conventions the requirement that foreign works were to be registered was established. At the same time the right to import foreign works or even produce translations was introduced (http://www. ipo. gov. uk/copy/c-applies/c-spoken. htm ; http://www. copyright. com/ccc/viewPage. do? pageCode=cr10-n; Goldstein 2001, pp. 37 ) The copyright act 1911 was established on 1st July 1912. praisms of an author were brought together this was possible by repeating them.

The terms of protections were extended and a new formula for calculating these terms was introduced. It also included all records, sounds recording, arctectual works and perforated roles in the copyright. It also revised the Berne convention by abolishing copyright registration with stationer’s hall. The copyright protection of unpublished works was granted by common law was established and saved for un published paintings, photographs as well as drawings. (http://www. ipo. gov. uk/copy/c-applies/c-spoken. htm ; http://www. copyright. com/ccc/viewPage. do? pageCode=cr10-n ) On 1st June, 1957 the copyright act 1956 was enforced.

The Berne conventions was further amended . this was facilitated by United Nations educational, scientific and cultural organization (UNESCO) and the UK’s accession to the universal copyright convention was also incorporated. Technological advances like broadcasts were included the performing right tribunal currently used was also established since 1957 many amendments have been ma de which include the introduction of the legislation that is currently in use. The designs and patents act 1988 was later introduced on 1st august 1989(http://www. ipo. gov. uk/copy/c-applies/c-spoken. htm ; http://www. copyright. com/ccc/viewPage. do?

pageCode=cr10-n ) B. Works that may be protected by copyright Copyrights protect all ‘original works of authorship that have been converted into expression ally tangible and fixed form. This fixation must however be directly perceptible. the following are the broad categories of works that are protected by copyrights; all literature works that include computer programs as well as compilations, all musical works and the words that accompany them, all dramatic works and the music that accompany them, both pantomimes as well as choreographic works, all audiovisual works including motion pictures, all sound recordings and all architectural work.

(Stim R, 2007, pp. 13-159, 185-319) For computing as well as internet, all downloads and upload materials are protected by copyright. Others include database and computer programs. All photographs, films or even digital works get copyright protection as artistic works. Copyrights are further extended to protect TV productions as well as films. These includes’ paintings, drawings engravings, sculptures, photographs, diagrams map works of architectural and works of artistic craftsmanship’. The written works protected by copyright include novels, lyrics articles in newspapers and manuals that give instructions.

Published editions protected by copyrights include poems, anthologies and magazines among others. For music to get copyright protection, it must be written down or recorded. Theatrical works protected by copyrights include opera, musical, bullets, pantomimes and plays among others. Speech and any spoken word is protected by copyrights if and only if it’s recorded(http://www. ipo. gov. uk/copy/c-applies/c-spoken. htm ; http://www. copyright. com/ccc/viewPage. do? pageCode=cr10-n ) C. How to obtain copyright It should be noted that many people misunderstand how copyright protection is secured.

What many people don’t understand is that copyright is automatically secured after creation and fixation of original work. This includes the creation of a copy of original work or a phonorecord. However registration of any work has many advantages. (Goldstein P, 2001) It is therefore important to note that any action, whether registration, publication and so on in the copyright office should not be taken as a requirement to obtain copyright even though the act of registration is highly recommended to all inventors. (Vaidhyanathan S, 2001, Pp 35-68, 81-117)

For registration of any work one needs to complete an application form. This form is submitted together with a non refundable fee that is mainly used for filling purpose. This fee is supposed to be paid for each and every copy of the material or works that are intended to be registered. A deposit of the work is also expected to be forwarded depending on particular situations. “ The general requirements follow. If the work was first published in the United States on or after January 1, 1978 two complete copies or phonorecords of the best edition.

If the work was first published in the United States before January 1, 1978, two complete copies or phonorecords of the work as first published. If the work was first published outside the United States, one complete copy or phonorecord of the work as first published. If sending multiple works, all applications, deposits, and fees should be sent in the same package. If possible, applications should be attached to the appropriate deposit. Whenever possible, number each package (e. g. , 1 of 3, 2 of 4) to facilitate processing. ”

http://www. copyright. gov/circs/circ1. html D. Rights provided by copyright Copyright provide exclusive right s to all creators but not publishers. All authors should be paid for works of their own creation if such works are to be used by other people. They have the sole right to distribute their works until that particular time when the copyrights expire or when the inventor disclaims these copyrights. Anybody who does not respect these copyrights is considered to have violated the copyright laws and thus legible for prosecution.

(http://www. ipo. gov. uk/copy/c-applies/c-spoken. htm ; http://www. copyright. com/ccc/viewPage. do? pageCode=cr10-n Vaidhyanathan S, 2001, Pp 35-68, 81-117) III Conclusion Many people are now motivated in their inventory activities by the fact that their exclusive rights are not infringed. This is because of the existence of copyright laws that protect their work. As a result, very talented people have come up with good ideas that all people in the world can borrow to help in the social economic development of the world nations.

It would not be enough for authors or creators to know that these copyrights exist but they should move a step forward to register their works and educate people on copyrights this will prevent any innocent infringement on these copy rights. ( Stim R, 2007, pp. 13-159, 185-319)For authors to derive all maximum benefits and satisfaction from their work it is very important that they should register their works and derive the benefits that result from protecting their ideas. Copyrights are therefore very important to all inventors.

(http://www. ipo. gov. uk/copy/c-applies/c-spoken. htm ; http://www. copyright. com/ccc/viewPage. do? pageCode=cr10-n ) IV References Copyright Basics Accessed from http://www. copyright. com/ccc/viewPage. do? pageCode=cr10-n on 7th May, 2008 Copyright Office Basics, Accessed from http://www. copyright. gov/circs/circ1. html on 7th May, 2008 Carol Ann Wilson, How to Obtain a Copyright, Accessed from http://www. compassnet. com/cawilson/copyright. htm on 7th May, 2008 Dietrich A.

Loeber, ‘“Socialist” Features of Soviet Copyright Law’, Columbia Journal of Transnational Law, vol. 23, pp 297–313, 1984 Intellectual property office: UK copyrights, Accessed from http://www. ipo. gov. uk/copy/c-applies/c-spoken. htm on 7th May, 2008 Paul Goldstein, 2001, International Copyright:, US, oxford university press Richard Stim, 2007, Patent, Copyright & Trademark, US, Nolo Siva Vaidhyanathan, 2001, Copyrights and Copywrongs: The Rise of Intellectual Property, US, NYU Press. HYPERLINK “http://www. copyright. gov/”http://www. copyright. gov on

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