Effects of Overpopulation
Abstract The paper draws our attention to the current trend of world population that is unevenly distributed across the regions of the earth with the aim to analyze the causes and effects of such population explosion in the present time and pending future disaster if policies are not put in place to put it to check. Many scientific definitions for overpopulation give an account of two things. The first is the fact that there is decreased resource capacity for a given set of areas where population explosion is pronounced in that there is no productivity or yield in terms of economy expansion and agricultural produce.
The second fact points to the fact that population frequency is more than the coping capacity. That is, the human power production capacity is not commensurate with increased consumption. The factors driving towards overpopulation are decline in mortality rate, increase industrialization, economic growth, advancement in medicine and technology, immigration, failure in birth control policy and poor education on the importance and measures in family planning.
The research critically studies the effect of overpopulation on three major headings viz. social implications for the society, economic implications for the future and the unavoidable environmental competitive response for relief from man pressure. Overpopulation is terrific, we have got to safe the future disaster for the next generation! Introduction and Definitions The concept of overpopulation is used when there is disproportionate increase in the number of human population in respect to the landed environment.
Another concept sees it as the shortage of natural resources per the available population of dwellers in a particular community or continent. At present the World population amounts to about 7 billion people while there is a projection of over 9 billion people by the year 2050. There has been a dramatic rise in the entire population of the world over the past few years back in a geometric ratio of about 170 million per annum (Hopfenberg et al. 2001). As at 1900, the population was 1. 65 billion this rose to 3. 5 billion in 1960. The population hit 6 billion in 1999.
Interestingly, most population explosions are recorded in the developing or less developed nations who yet have the crisis of balancing their population with resources. The weighing scale between their natural provision and wants is imbalance. Compounding the issue is also the imbalance between the high rate of their fertility and limited industrial revolution. As such, developed cities of the world have adopted measures at regulating the rate of birth or population control policies instituted to forestall the crisis of overpopulation in the nearest future.
One could argue that since increase in population leads to increase in human availability to increase produce, it is important to note that natural resources are not evenly distributed on the earth, and secondly, not all nations are on equal developmental scale with the rest of the world to being able to produce for them. Hence, the consuming power exceeds the producing hands and overpopulation results. Certain factors or denominators are considered in determining the state of population density of a region.
These include the availability of clean or pure air, the assessment of present food and reserve, the evenly distribution of clothing and shelters, the availability of clean water for fishing, drinking and other important activities as the case may be. Furthermore, the distribution health facilities, social amenities and infrastructure, adequate waste disposal scheme and other life compatible measures are considered in assessing the level of population density. When the people competing for these resources are in surplus, the area is pronounced overpopulated.
Thus, the quality of existence on earth is shortened Factors facilitating overpopulation Prior to subsequent analysis of the effects of overpopulation, the knowledge of facilitating factors is crucial to understanding the subject. It is only being natural that man in a drive to seek survival populates areas with abundant resources where he can nourish himself and reproduce just like every other animal. Hence, concentration of resources to a localized region with minimal exploring asset accounts for one.
In some developing nations, certain believes hold strongly that the essence of human is to enlarge and procreate on earth as being directed by God on the seventh day of creation. As such it becomes a taboo and stigmatization for a married family to posses just a single child or live without children. On State policy, there is absence of regulations as touching the spread or encroachment of land, unwanted child born out of wed lock, prohibition of abortion, among others. Reduction in death rate and increase in birth rate are other factors responsible for overpopulation in certain region of the world.
When mortality is declined owing to availability of improved social amenities, especially good medical service delivery, the ground for population expansion is provided. Thus there is increased in life span and more people are live to procreate with high rate of birth survival. The everyday advancement in medicine has made it possible to find cures and treat many killer diseases that inflict the world in the primitive ages. This formed the basis for sustenance of life and increased life span in developed nations of the world.
On the other hand, medicine has also assisted in the fertility of human beings at reproductive age. There is an advancement that can help in conception for barren ones at reproductive years of their life. While yet the world is happy celebrating the technological advancement and growth, the other side to the innovation is the increase in the entire world population and its non-palatable consequential effects when they are not put under control. Moreover, migration is also a factor. There is emigration out of unfavorable region to a more regions with perhaps, legal control access or loose entrance regulations.
The new areas could soon be overpopulated if unchecked. This factor is responsible for unprecedented population growth in some regions of the developing nations. The Government failure to impose a policy at equating emigration with immigration contributes to the genesis of the consequential problems. Lack of education on family planning in some less developed nation further compounds the problem of overpopulation. These people continue to reproduce till the age of menopause with the notion of such act being a blessing from their creator.
Education plays a role here in enlightening on the harmful effects of poverty and diseases epidemic that may result from such practice. Economy buoyancy of a nation also attracts immigrants to that nation. If the border is not put under control or failure to facilitate equal migration rate under bilateral trading policy, the economic booming may culminate into an anti-economic drive in the nearest future (Simonetta, 2009) Effects of Overpopulation The menace pose by the serious effect of overpopulation is a striking issue in this research paper.
The increased competition for limited and finite resources on earth owing to the effect of overpopulation does not only have a direct implication on social issue, economic or environmental consequences, there is also the aged effect of development of strange animalistic trait in man who possibly could develop animal survival strategy such as cannibalism among others. The result is a paradoxical wiping out of normal human race for the evolution of strange “beings” with different values and conventions.
On social Implications – food shortage as a result of overpopulation for example, results in famine. The intuitive selfish man makes attempt to redeem itself of looming death by committing social vices (Mamer & Bill, n. d. ). According to Carnell and Brian report, malnutrition develops from famine leading to diseases outbreaks such as recently reported Ebola virus in certain regions in Africa and South America. This outbreak commonly occur among the innocent children who are immune-compromised (reduced body immune system to combat diseases/infections).
The increase in the level of illiteracy is accounted for when the government cannot handle to populous or crowded schools in the provision of reading or academic materials to the poor ones. According to an annual statistic, out of the growing children population in the world, over forty thousand die from malnutrition and another one hundred and fifty million are deprived of good health service (Busman & Vince, 2008). Economic Effects – As part of the effect of overpopulation is found the economic redistribution effects. The states are governed by the people who are enfranchised electorate in a democratic setting.
The population of such people on regional basis becomes one of the major factors that direct the establishment of project and policy implementation (Busman & Vince, 2008). The impact of the government must be massively felt by at least the majority of the voters. Services are provided at specific areas for maximal utility. These services include educational infrastructure, security and crime control measures, fire fighters base establishment other necessary facility so as to attract foreign investors, among others. As such, overpopulation in a way is a stimulant for temporary economic development.
The persistence of overpopulation negates the productive effect sooner leading to high unemployment rate, unequal distribution of wealth, and economic insecurity for the nation. The populous nation is an attractive end point for foreign investors who will enjoy high patronage but the problem is that most investors spent the money in own country with the host company lagging behind in economy. The later effect on the economy result in poor standard of living for the residence, inability to improve on developing skills due to financial incapacitation, the unskilled population would birth out poor productivity.
The natural resources are soon used up due to population explosion and economy recession sets in. China is an example of a nation with this economy effect. China has the one-fifth of the entire world population with a total of 1. 7 billion people. They have exhausted their farm productive yield (Clayton & Gary, 2002). China gradually increases exportation of grain by 1000% within two years in a mission to increase economy income that can cater for the population. The resident people compete for the insufficient let-over. This can only be afforded by the rich ones.
Hence, famine and other social effects results from economic crisis. In lieu of this effect, overpopulation is a disaster in the face of disproportionate economic growth for any nation (Clayton & Gary, 2002). Thirdly, the effect of overpopulation on environment poses a serious threat that could fast wipe out the race of humanity if the trend is not checked. Among others are the incidence of global warming, ecological imbalance from breathing gases, deforestation or encroachment of natural reserve (fossil fuel depletion), and scarcity of fresh water and air (Pimm et al.
, 1995). Environmentalist greatly decry the nonchalance attitude paid by most States in the world to the unregulated industrial proliferation with increased pollution of natural habitat for humans and other living organism we depend on (plants and animals). Probably, scientist are now finding answers to the long quest for the genesis of certain diseases that accompany the age of industrial revolution such as cancers. For example, “environmentalists battled with Los Angeles over the diversion of water from Mono Lake to the L.
A. basin”. A large population utilizing polluted water, feeding on poisoned aquatic creatures will sooner face the repercussions. Pollution is invariably associated with overpopulation. Car pollution, domestic and industrial wastes and other by-product of overpopulation cannot be sustained by the small earth or limited landed area where such occurs, hence, the natural forceful extension produces unfriendly outcomes that man could even regret to have ever been born.
Global warming produces poor nutritive content of food, green house effect among others; all these are incompatible with existence of life on earth (Leakey et al. , 1996). In conclusion, one may quickly submit here that the stubbornness of man to regulate its own fertility will soon yield him unexpected end when natural force can no more cope with the environmental stress it faces every second. Let us all come together and safe the future disaster! References Hopfenberg, Russell and Pimentel, David (March 2001) “Human Population Numbers as a Function of Food Supply,” Environment, Development and Sustainability, vol.
3, no. 1, pp. 1-15. Leakey, Richard and Roger Lewin, 1996, The Sixth Extinction: Patterns of Life and the Future of Humankind, Anchor, ISBN 0-385-46809-1 Busman and Vince. (2008, February 11). Effects of Human Overpopulation. Retrieved April 14, 2009. Pimm S. L. , Russell G. J. , Gittleman J. L. and T. M. Brooks (1995), The Future of Biodiversity, Science 269: pp. 347-350. http://ezinearticles. com/? Human-Overpopulation-Causes,-Effects-and-Solutions&id=1985200Sample Essay of Edusson.com