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Petroleum in non-Energy Industries

No one can underestimate the benefits of oil in the world. Countries in the world are trying their best in research, so that they can establish whether they have the capacity to produce oil. This is because countries which are oil producers are well off economically. Their currencies hardly fluctuate, and they are always leading in the economic reports globally. The majority of these countries are in the Middle East. Indeed, oil is precious, so much so that it has severally caused wrangles between the U. S. and the Middle East, which is the first oil producing region in the world.

The fight is sparked off by the realization that energy gotten from oil is very important, and no single country can do without this energy. Apart from energy production, oil has several other important functions in the global industrial sector. These functions are also very vital as they really contribute to the Gross Domestic Product of a country, leading to unceasing economic benefits. Oil and its Chemical Composition Oil is referred to as a nonrenewable resource which takes a number of years to be created. It is a fossil fuel like any other natural gas.

The reason why it is called a fossil fuel is because of its formation processes. All fossil fuels are in the nonrenewable resources category (Le, 2010). Oil is normally derived from petroleum. Several of the daily global activities and formation of other useful commodities have been made possible by oil and all its by-products, gasoline being the major one. This gas is efficient as it is responsible for cooking food, transportation of people, food and products. Despite the major use of oil, which is energy, it is a foundation of several other useful chemical products (Jovinelly, 2008). Unrefined oil is referred to as crude oil.

It is a complex mixture of compounds, made up of hydrogen, sulphur, carbon and oxygen. The majority of the components in the crude oil are hydrogen and carbon. These two compounds are usually linked together with very strong inter-atom bonds. As a result, they have the ability of forming different molecule types depending on size and shape. The carbon-hydrogen compounds are collectively referred to as “hydrocarbons”. The smallest types of hydrocarbons are usually gaseous in form at normal temperature (Lisa, 2002). The medium sized hydrocarbons are usually liquids, and the largest form the solids.

In crude oil, the different molecular types are “dissolved into each other” (Lisa, 2002), and therefore result to a viscous and unsightly substance. This substance is taken to the refinery, where all the contents (liquids, solids and gases) are separated from each other. Their compositions are also modified, prior to their distribution. After refining the crude oil, the liquid fractions of the substance are converted to diesel fuel, gasoline, heating and lubricating oils. The large hydrocarbons are usually solids and are normally used for road and roofing purposes (Lisa, 2002). Oil Types in the World and Saudi Arabia

Not all types of crude oil are similar. Some types of crude oils are specifically suited to particular refinement methods so as to convert them into other products. Different crude oil grades cost less than others as far as refining is concerned. There are several types of oil. The first one is the Brest Blend, which is normally found in the North Sea rich oil fields. This crude oil is severally used as a quality and price benchmark for various crude oil grades which are found in other world parts. Though it is a light oil, it is denser than West Texas Intermediate, another crude oil type found in the Mexican and Texas coasts.

Brent Blend is further classified into Brent Sweet Light Crude, Forties, Oseburg and Brent Crude. Brent Blend has low sulphur contents, and as a result, it is the best for the production of gasoline (Oil Jobs, 2010). West Texas Intermediate is the next oil type. It is also commonly used as a benchmark for grading quality, therefore, determines the output price per every barrel. When the barrel prices are quoted in the market reports, this is an indication that this crude oil type, together with the Brent Blend types, are used for the purpose.

This crude oil type is very light, and has very light sulphur contents. As a result, it is very efficient for refinement into other gas and oil products (Oil Jobs, 2010). OPEC Basket is the other crude oil type, which is found in several Eastern nations that constitute OPEC (Oil Producing Exporting Cartel). This is the type of oil found in Qatar, Libya and Saudi Arabia. This crude oil classification has several sub- grades, which include Fateh (Dubai), Arab Light (Saudi Arabia), Minas (Indonesia), Bonny Light (Nigeria), and Tijuana Light (Venezuela).

OPEC has always taken control of the prices in the world market. This is because it manipulates the oil production levels. In Saudi Arabia especially, when oil experts realize that there is too much oil production on a certain period of time, they cut down the production levels so as to have constant and good selling prices. The OPEC grade is heavier compared to West Texas Intermediate and Brent Blend (Oil Jobs, 2010). Saudi Arabia is the first as a far as oil reserves, exports and productions are concerned. The country is likely to be one of the world’s largest oil exports.

The 2008 Statistical Energy Survey revealed that in 2008, 10412. 6 thousand barrels were produced each day. From January up to November 2006, the United States was supplied with over 1. 4 million oil barrels by Saudi Arabia each day. The oil found in Saudi Arabia is distinct as it is very diverse. The five major types found in this region include Arabian Light, Arabian Super Light, Arabian Extra Light, Arabian Medium and Arabian heavy. The crude oil and all its products are transported through the Arabian Gulf Ras Tanura port and the Red Sea Yanbu’ Port (Mbendi, 2009). Oil formation history and usage

The oil used today was formed a very long time ago, not less than a million years ago. Animals and tiny plants died and were deposited to the beds of a shallow water body. Afterwards, there were deposits of silt, (which comprises of tiny rock pieces), sand and clay. They were later covered by a very thin layer of animals and dead plants. The dead organisms began to decompose or decay. This process became continuous after dead organisms made a cover of a rocky layer (Le, 2010). Afterwards, there was the addition of silt, sand and clay, which covered the new organism layer.

With time, there was a large amount of pressure that built up, which caused a lot of heat in the bottom layer. Under this pressure, all the contents in between the rocks, which composed of silt, clay, sand, decayed plants and animals, changed into a heavy and dark liquid, which is oil. Therefore, oil results from several years of decay, heat and pressure (Le, 2010). Oil wells were dug deep, over six miles into the ground for the search of petroleum. It was a very expensive procedure, which was mandatory because petroleum was a very important natural resource.

This procedure has continued up to date. Since time immemorial, the major sources of oil are fuel, which is used for heating, as jet fuel and gasoline. Additionally, natural gas and petroleum are in most cases used to generate electricity. After the refining process is over, the oil serves as a foundation of several other functions, and not only in energy production. This has been the case since time immemorial, and the use of oil other than energy has been expanding with the increase of technology (Joaquin, 2010).

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