Reviews of the water conservation system in Florida
97% of the water in the earth surface is salty and unsuitable for drinking. Two thirds of the remaining 3% is frozen and is represented by glaciers and ice caps around large mountains, and Polar Regions. Water resources around the world are increasingly facing an unparallel crisis, crisis of management, crisis in supply to meet ever increasing demand (Ghosh 53). This study aims at analyzing the water system in Florida, the conservation efforts, political policies governing the management of the water and the water management advocacy organization in the state.
The research will involve the use of both primary and secondary data to obtain data for reviews of the water conservation system in Florida. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM The state of Florida has an abundance of water surfaces that are utilized for different reasons in the state. The state has more than 50000 miles of streams,7811 lakes, and 4060 square mile of estuaries scattered all over the state. According to the Florida water management district, the state receives an average of 54 inches of rainfall annually. The Body states the total Municipal usage of water at 2. 0 billions gallons of water.
The agricultural usage of water is estimated at 3. 4 billion gallons per day while the total power and commercial usage totals to 20 Billion gallons per day. This figure has been on an upturn rise from 2005 due to the increased demand of water in the State. This has been due to the growth in population and industrial activity in the state. This upsurge has necessitated efforts for water conservation to ensure wise usage of the rare commodity Significance of the problem Water conservation has been promoted since the supply of water supplies are decreasing and development of modern and new supplies is costly.
The easy availability of Florida water has made a lot of people careless in its wastage leading to constant wastage. Due to the precious nature of water to both the current and the future generations, actions have been adopted to ensure the careful and efficient usage of the water. These conservation efforts greatly save the supply of water and costs for the different stakeholders. Water management must be coordinated with, and integrated into, the overall water management of a region (Bouwer 217).
The southwest Florida water management district is a key body in balancing the current water usage and the future water needs. There exists numerous water conservation bodies in Florida that agitate for the adoption of sound water conservation policies across the state in industries,households,business and in agriculture. Discussion The analysis of the water usage and conservation situation in Florida entails the discussion of the different usage of water in the state and the water wastage and conservation efforts in the different sectors.
While almost all liquid fresh water of the planet occurs underground, its long-term suitability as a source of water is threatened by non-point source pollution from agriculture and by aquifer depletion due to groundwater withdrawals in excess of groundwater recharge (Bouwer 217-18). Agriculture usage and wastage of water The sub tropical climate enjoyed in Florida greatly enhances its agriculture industry. There are fertile organic soils and warm temperatures which is an ideal factor in the abundant growth of agriculture in the state.
The state is a top producer in citrus and sugar cane which makes the state agricultural industry second to tourism. Agriculture accounts for a large use of fresh water in the State. This constitute 50% of total water for the state since 2000. A total of 2015 million acres of land were irrigated in the year 2009. Irrigation has necessitated the use of different techniques to ensure that plants receive all year supply of water. Usage of different irrigation methods have been adopted in the state. There is widespread usage of furrow and overhead irrigation in many of the farms across the countryside.
The adoption of drip and surge irrigation ensures that the various tomatoes, sugar cane, sweet corn and vegetable production is high all year round. Surface canals from the different lakes in the state supply large amounts of water to meet the intense crop production and the constant dry conditions occasionally experienced during early spring. The adoption of aquaculture has allowed the usage of freshwater in commercial fisheries in the State. This has been attributed as a modern agricultural usage of water. However irrigation as a water usage channel has led to increased prevalence in wastage.
Major irrigation practices adopted have been unsustainable and contributed to the water wastage. Only half of the water used for irrigation actually benefits the crops. Much of the water is lost during irrigation through surface turnoff. Irrigation also brings salt to the top surface which is then washed into rivers. Mismanagememt of these irrigation techniques leads to waste of water and contamination of other water sources. Industrial usage and wastage of water The water industry is struggling to cope with current water demands with little or no opportunity to look to the future (Gray 711).
Water usage for industrial purposes has increased for the last 15 years. Thirty nine percent of water is greatly used for thermoelectric production of thermoelectric power. This generation entails the usage of steam driven generators. In many cases surface water accounts for the largest percentage of this usage. A lot of this power is used across the state for industrial purposes. In addition, water is used by the industries that produce wood and paper products, gasoline and oils and metals. Majority of industrial products uses water during some or all phases of production.
This water is used for washing, transporting, diluting, cooling, incorporation into the product and disinfection. Use of water in the chemical industry allows for chemical dissolving and solvency purposes. However the discharge of industrial water into water bodies results to pollution of water. The discharge of chemical solutes and coolant water results to pollution of rivers and lakes. Contamination of water sources greatly make the water unfit for use. Emmission of urban sewage and other industrial effluents which dissolve or remain suspended in water masses endanger marine life.
Water pollution from manufacturing industry, mining operations and from urban areas can impose major spillover costs on agriculture. Oil spillage from oil tanks further contribute to industrial contamination of water. The toxicity of this materials poison the water which renders the usage of the water harpharzdous. Water Management system in Florida Managing urban and rural water supply have now been termed as an area that deserves better understanding (Ghosh 54). The southern Florida water management body is responsible for the management, distribution and protection of water resources in Florida.
It achieves this by balancing and improving the efficiency, quality and maintenance of water standards. This ensures the sustainability and efficiency of the water systems in the state. The water usage and conservation system adopted by the body offers specific guidelines on the usage and conservation of water in the state. The system allows for water storage, conservation, drainage and control in the state. There is need for a holistic management of freshwater as a finite and vulnerable resources and the integration of sectoral water plans and programs within the frameworks of economic and social development (Kenney 161).
The body has institutionalized water management. This places the all waters of the state under a common and restrictive body. It allows the implementation of regulatory programs that give guidelines on the consumption, storage, industrial usage and management of water. This calls for protection and managing policies. Standards enforced by regulative bodies ensure that water usage achieves sustainability and efficiency. The adopted system gives guidelines on the pricing and specifications that have been applied for water management and usage across the state.
This information and education is effective as it achieves water conservation without imposing significant price increases. This information allows the users to understand the importance of regulation, policing and restrictions which is done while maintaining individual freedoms of users. Standards therefore allow the establishment of water rates for households, industries and institutions. Efficient irrigation to minimize water wastage during crop irrigation has been introduced to ensure that an efficient system of irrigation that conserves water is adopted.
These standards have greatly led to increased water conservation and the overall environmental protection. This is due to the fact that they have reduced the wastage of water during irrigation, promoted the recycling of waste water and introduced standards on the industrial discharge of effluents into water masses. The standards have greatly created an awareness to water users that usage of water is not restricted to the humankind but also it preserves the fresh water habitats that is ideal for marine wildlife. Importance of political policies in water management Case study: Water Management and Ownership in Australia
All strategies suggested for water management may not yield the desired results unless the systems of governance become effective (Ghosh 56). The development of government policies on the usage, trading, pricing and conservation of water has brought the political significance of promotion of government business collaborations in the water industry. The Commonwealth government has the legal capacity to involve itself indirectly in the public policy which it has applied in the water industry by enacting national policies in collaboration with other stakeholders in the economy.
This commercialization is vital as it leads to the better management of responsibilities. This greatly develops the competition in the water industry leading to better provision of water to the citizens. Government policies in Australia have ensured that government owned corporations hold responsibility for water distribution and pricing while still controlling catchments for most of the water supply. Water management in Australia is mainly controlled through a combination of factors that have been attributed as the factors behind the relevancy and efficiency of the country’s water system.
Polices on marketing, regulatory and planning have ensures the creation of a market based system that has liberalized the water situation in the country. Political policies have gained root in other countries due to their success in Australia. This is due to the cost recovery and transparent nature of the water pricing model. The policy ensures that future water investments are only undertaken after sustainable appraisal. There exist clear specifications that give guidelines on the ownership, quality and methods of transfer of any water property rights.
The basic reason for this shift is the multiple purpose development that imposed substantial environmental costs and increased social inequality in many parts of the world. The process of environmental accounting has led to a more radical ecological ideal of managing river systems (Kenney 157). The adoption of legitimate uses of water, public education, proper research on water technology and increased responsibility to the local level administrators on water usage and management has promoted further the issue of water management.
The provision of water services simply cannot cope with the rate of population growth, especially where such services are prohibitively expensive (Gray 711-16). These political policies on water management have created deep public confidence and certainty on the water management issue. The adoption of secure rights on water usage and distribution has led to an improvement in the accounting for water due to agreeable standards of measuring the commodity. One of the major issues that deserve attention is public consultations.
Stakeholders in water resource management are hardly taken into consideration for decision on water (Ghosh 59). Consultations has greatly helped in the adoption of measuring, reporting and monitoring systems for water that have proved to stakeholders that political collaboration is essential in water management. Careful analysis is a prerequisite to major utility investments in conservation programs. adoption of a comprehensive framework that manages the water resources from a political perspective has been hailed a great success in the fight for environmental conservation.
The current growth in population, increased urbanization, and widespread industrialization has increased the demand for water. Alternatively water standards have regulated this by emphasizing water conservation policies aimed at ensuring the proper and efficient usage of water. The introduction of a political instigated framework that manages water resources ensures that specific priorities on water services are stipulated. Policies that specify water rights, pricing, industrial use and institute actions for environmental conservation and restoration achieves a coherent water management policy that is readily usable by all stakeholders.
Water quality management ensures that regulations are set that govern the quality standards that industrial dischargers have to meet. Such a watershed management policy ensures that the ecology of the water source is protected. These water quality management guidelines will give informative directions on industrial water discharges and offer recurpissive actions on any discharges. This is aimed at conserving water masses by ensuring toxic discharges do not poison local water bodies.
The water management policies address the issues of wetland restoration and water resource planning. These policies stimulate the management of state water resources through the introduction of legal and administrative policies. Role of Environmental Advocacy organizations Case Study: Indigenous Environmental Network The Indigenous environmental network is an US environmental advocacy group established in 1990 that aims at developing strategies to create awareness and direct actions to address issues affecting,water,land,air,and the environment.
The need to better understand water, the atmosphere and biodiversity demands rigorous awareness and research not only into whole systems (Kenney 163). The organization periodically hold events where it promotes the conservation of the environment and the entire mother nature through maintaining a dialogue channel aimed at upholding environmental justice and environmental resources management. The group maintains a well functional web site where it publishes in depth information on its history, mission and discussive features.
The group’s web site clearly achieves a visual appearance by incorporation of colour, a visual and written message that attracts a view to read more. Use of a visually enticing island in its home page attracts any environmental friendly visitor to examine the contents of the homepage. The site is fully functional with highlights of the current and most recent environmental news in its home page. This has achieved relevance since it helps in guaranteeing functionality to the readers. The organization publishes monthly journals which contain articles, news reports and current news in the environmental conservation sector.
The site clearly offers its stand in the issue of environmental conservation by clearly stating in its homepage its objective which is to ensure environmental justice and empowering readers on the same. The groups offers a comprehensive information on the history of environmental injustices and offers simple steps which if undertaken by all stakeholders ensures the global conservation and sustainability of the environment to the future generations. The site strongly appeals to the reader’s emotions by emphasizing on the importance of correcting injustices against the environmental.
It appeals for donations from both private foundations and individual donations to help in the public awareness and advocacy on environmental justice issues. The incorporation of information that any donation is tax free further appeals to the readers. The site offers information on its affiliates and partners who help in the facilitation of the environmental protection efforts. To achieve credibility the site gives information on the board of directors and the office branches of the organization. The organization has external links that offers further informational on past work done by the group.
It is socially recognized with a fan base in social networks like face book Evaluation of the study The study has clearly investigated the ideal conditions and features of the water management system and the specifications that have helped in achieving sustainability and production to the general public. Sufficient quantity and an excellent quality of water in the future can only be guaranteed through more integrated management of water resources. The standards set by the water management board have allowed that water consumption, distribution and conservation are achieved by enhancing guidelines and rates on its usage.
The system has been supported by this study since it has given ample room for water conservation efforts which has generally contributed to the conservation of the environment. The management of water resources as such is not confined to the area of civil engineering of public health or irrigation departments; it calls for a holistic approach and anew strategy from multi disciplinary avenues (Ghosh 58) Collaboration between the government and water management bodies has allowed the integration of national policies that have improved water management.
The study has positively argued that water management is a political issue that needs collective responsibility between the government and businesses. The case study of Australia has shown that political policies can greatly influence the efficiency of water usage, pricing, distribution and conservation’s adoption of such policies greatly allow water management to be centralized which achieves objectivity. The role of environmental conservation bodies has been praised in the fight to protect the environment. These bodies create awareness on environmental dangers and the specific actions that can be adopted to reverse the trend.
According to Ghosh (p59), one of the major issues that deserve attention is public consultation. This organization creates appeal to the public and maintains websites from where information is provided on their programmes and actions on the issue. This websites are well maintained with appeals to the public to support the cause by offering donations and pledges and circulating awareness on environmental conservation CONCLUSION Environmental sustainability for the future and present generations can only be achieved by conservation the environment.
Protection of the environment ensures that the water, air, land and the entire ecosystem is done to ensure its free from detrimental actions especially from human and natural actions. This management ensures that the environment is managed in a way that does not spoil, exhaust or extinguish the environment. Environmental conservation initiative ensures that all stakeholders adhere to management policies aimed at protection of the ecosystem. WORKS CITED Bouwer, Herman. Integrated water management: emerging issues and challenges: Agricultural Water Management.
Environmental Scientists and Engineers. 2000, Volume 45, Issue 3, Pages 217-228. Ghosh, Asish. Environmental conservation: challenges & actions. Illinois. APH Publishing. 2008, Pp 55-60. Gray, NF. An Introduction for Environmental Scientists and Engineers: Sustainability Principles in Water. 2010, Pages 711-726. Retrieved on July 21st 2010 from http://www. ienearth. org/index. html. Kenney, Douglas. In search of sustainable water management: international lessons for the American West and beyond. Massachussets. Edward Elgar Publishing. Pp 160-170 .Sample Essay of EduBirdie.com