Solid material management in UK
The issue of the identification of the most creative approaches of the management as well as the reduction of the solid waste material has been a focus of research in the majority of the people, business enterprises as well as the community in general. The name that is most commonly used for the identification of these solid waste materials is the garbage or the trash. The approaches that have given immense contribution include the coordinated practice mix such as the reduction of the source, disposal as well as recycling, through the application of the processes such as composting.
Introduction For the purpose of the achievement of effective and the management approaches that are environmentally sound a sequence of the above approaches is of immense importance. This entails the primary reduction of the source, followed by recycling through composting and the last approach being disposals in the landfills as well as in combustors. This is the order of specification as per the recommendations of EPA. There are some specific requirements necessary for the disposal of as well as the combustion of the solid wastes.
The first option is the application of the technology of the landfills which are specifically some engineered areas meant for the placement of the solid waste materials especially in UK. The second option has to do with the application of the waste combustors whose approach is burning of the waste materials through the application of a high intensity of the temperature. The consequence of this process is the reduction of the volume of the waste materials as well as the generation of electricity.
The third and final option is the use of the transfer stations which involves the application of facilities in which there is unloading of the solid waste materials from the vehicles that collect them. In these stations there is a brief hold before reloading them to larger transport vehicles meant for long meant for long distant transport for the purpose of shipment to the respective landfills and other disposal as well as treatment facilities (Bio-cycle 1993). Existing policy The management as well as the reduction of the solid waste materials can comfortably be achieved through the application of thee following techniques:
Source reduction: the application of this option of the solution of the problem involves the alteration of the design, alteration of the mode of the manufacture as well as the production of the materials for the purpose of the reduction of the amount as well as the toxicity of the waste materials that are usually thrown away. Recycling: this involves the process of sorting, collection as well as processing of the materials for the purpose of disposing them through sale in their context of new products.
This option has some economic advantages since some value is added to the materials that were otherwise taken as waste. Composting: the third option relates to the decomposition of the organic waste materials of the like of food scraps, the yard trimmings among others. This is achieved through the application of microorganisms such as the fungi as well as the bacteria with the aim of the production of compost. The end product, i. e. the compost is applicable in the form of organic material for the purpose of the amendment of the soil or as a plant growth medium (Bio-cycle 1993).
The application of the three R’s It is an obvious point that the country wide quantity of the solid waste under accumulation for a period of about one calendar year is sufficient to blanket the entire country with a substantial trash layer. It therefore implies that for the purpose of overcoming of such a problem, there is a requirement for concrete and creative solution. The 3 R’s approach of solution is applicable for this purpose which has the implication of “reduce, reuse as well as recycle” of the upcoming solid waste materials. Let us consider their mode of action individually (Bromley 1995).
Reduce concept is one of the solution approaches that is considered to be the best and is usually taken to be first “R” and the biggest support with regard to the eradication of the problem of the trash. Reduce has the implication of cutting down on the items that are bought and applied with consequent reduction on the waste materials available for disposal. This has the implication of the prevention of the occurrence of the waste material as a matter of priority (Saunders 1993). The items that must be purchased must be those that are associated with low levels of packaging.
The approach of the reduction through what has been purchased is the surest way of the prevention of the trash that will consequently be created. The absence of the trash as a matter of priority implies that there is no likelihood of the prevalence of the problem related to the elimination of the trash. The reduction of the waste is a saviour of the natural resources, the money needed for the disposal of the trash as well as the space that would otherwise be needed in the landfill (Bromley 1995). Refuse concept is the second of the 3 R’s.
The issue of re-using of the things intended for waste materials if it is a possibility is the best option of the maintenance of the environment in comparison to recycling. This approach eliminates the requirement for the reprocessing prior to its reapplication as s the case with the sacks of paper grocery who re-use may be repeated several times to meet their initial purpose or for a different purpose. The consideration of reapplication of the items that are difficult to eliminate through the process of reduction is a healthy approach to maintain the environment.
In the circumstance that the application of re-use is the approach of choice, the generated waste at the time of the creation of new products and waste arising as a result of the disposal of the product are effectively avoided (Bromley 1995). Recycle is the third concept of the 3 “R’s”. This has the implication of the conversion of items that have already been applied into new raw materials that are available for the production of new goods. This is usually the third option after the first two that have already been discussed above.
The reason behind this fact is their requirement for new resources to serve the purpose of their transportation as well as the process of manufacture. However, their economic as well as the environmental benefits are of significant importance. Among the benefits associated with the process are the conservation of the resources, the reduction of the waste materials and the creation of job opportunities that is around six times in relation to the opportunities of the jobs created in the case of the application of land filling of waste of similar capacity (Berle 1991)
Information needed for the decision making process. Landfills Although landfill technology is applied in most parts of the world, I will address the issue in the context of UK for the purpose of this paper. It has been a tradition for the UK to rely heavily on landfills for the purpose of the disposal of waste materials, the bulk of which is the household waste. As figures suggest this is the country with the largest amount of the household waste materials that are deposited in the landfills in comparison to the rest of the countries in the EU state.
Majority of these waste materials originate from the households. However, the manufacturers are to blame because of their production of items that are disposable after being used for one time. For the purpose of meeting the EU Landfill Directive, the UK is adopting the common designs standards, the operations as well as the landfill sites after care as laid down by the EU Directives. The directives are also meant through the limitation of the level of methane that is emitted by the landfills.
This greenhouse gas is very powerful and it was at the center of the agreement in the 1997 Kyoto protocol (Lebensorger & Salhofer 2008). Due to the fact of population increase in UK among other countries, there is a corresponding increase in the capacity of the waste under production all over the world. This therefore calls for innovation and implementation of new and efficient methods of the waste products disposal as well as the elimination of the old antiquated procedures.
The past methods required that the waste materials be placed in the dumps which are a very poor method. The waste was usually exposed to the atmosphere where it can be blown away by agents such wind or heavy storms (Saunders 1993). This was usually a course of foul smells as well as frequent fires with an uncontrollable spread and consequently, a source of environmental pollution through the emission of dangerous and harmful atmospheric pollutants. This approach was also a source of the proliferation of the verminous creatures of the nature of mosquitoes.
The roaches, rats as well as the flies among others whose repercussions were the proliferation of the incidences of diseases. Hogs were also beneficiaries as they had the access of huge organic waste material sources from which they could feed on (Bromley 1995). The effect caused by the spread of the hogs was consequential to the proliferation of trichinosis. There was therefore the requirement for the enactment of stringent measures for the regulation of waste treatment before the hogs could access it for feeding.
There were also instances of the disposal of the wastes through the process of dumping the in oceans which is illegal at the current state of the issue just as it has become impractical for hog-feeding. This is the root cause for advocating the adoption as well as the implementation of the application of the approach of landfills as the most sanitary approach to the treatment as well as the disposal of the solid waste materials in various parts of the globe.
The alternative to this approach was the use of the incinerators but due to the problems associated with air pollution causing great public pressure, the approach has been abandoned (Ferris et. al. 1994). The current design of the landfill has been tailored to offer minimal problems of pollution. The prevention of the movement of the water throughout the landfill as well as its percolation to reach the groundwater, there is the installation of the system of runoff for the purpose of the collection of the drainage as well as the maintenance of the dry status of the landfill.
The movement of the water throughout the landfill is never encouraged since this situation is a possible cause of picking as well as transportation of the pollutants in which case, it is usually referred to as a leachate. It is also possible for it to pick organic chemicals that are toxic as well as some heavy metals, which is a source of the contamination of the neighbouring sources of ground water that may be used by human.
This situation is controlled through the application of liners made of plastic as well as clay at the bottom of the landfill before the dumping of the solid waste materials have been effected (Ferris et. al. 1994). In the design of the landfill, it is also important to take into consideration of the foul smells as well as the proliferation of the contagious diseases that arise as a result of the blowing off as well as leakages in the landfill. This is taken care of through covering the solid waste with a material of a clean fill in the entire day time.
There is also the installation of a system responsible for the recovery of the methane. This is to prevent the possibility of the buildup of the levels of the gas in lower levels of the landfill. The result of this is a leakage in the basements as well as the systems of sewer that are in the environs of the landfill which are a source of expressions incase that they may be ignited. There may be landfills that are internal to a specific site of waste disposal, in which case a specific producer who generates personal waste and therefore are responsible for the disposal of that particular wastes.
There may also exist communal landfills in which case several producers have the access of the facility. The other facet of the application of these facilities is waste management of the nature of temporary storage, the consolidation of the materials for transfer as well as processing including sorting, recycling as well as treatment (Berle 1991) There are several impacts of adverse nature that arise out of the operations of a landfill. There is a wide variation of the extent of danger that may arise ranging from fatal accidents to simple problems.
During the dumping of the landfill, some scavengers may be buried under these heaps. Infrastructural problems may also occur due to the impact of the heavy vehicles that are trying to access the site of the landfill (Berle 1991) They also pose dangers to the pollution of the environment in the context of the ground water contamination as well as aquifiers developed at the time of the leakage of the landfill, the contamination of the at the time of the usage of the landfill and when the landfill has been closed.
The generation of the methane gas is also a case relevance that is brought about by the organic wastes undergoing the process of decomposition. This greenhouse gas has a high potency in relation to the carbon dioxide thus causing great extents of danger in as far as the survivor of the neighbouring inhabitants is concerned. The landfills whose operations are not perfect are potential harbours for the vendors of the diseases of the nature of the floes and the rats especially prevalent in 3rd world nations.
They also injur the wildlife as well as posing simple nuisances of foul odour, the noise pollution dust as well as vermin among others (Berle 1991) Conclusion The landfills in UK have a perfect engineering for the purpose of their compliance with the rules as well as the regulations as set forward in the law. The protection of the environment should be an important consideration in the design and construction of a landfill the planning of the site should be done in the consideration of the sensitive areas with regard to the environment.
The monitoring system with regard to the environment is also an issue of great importance. The advantage of the newly elected landfill is their potential capabilities to tap the harmful gases and convert it into energy. Reference Berle, G. 1991, Green Entrepreneur in Business Opportunities That Saves the Earth, Liberty Hall Press, New York. Bio-cycle, 1993, The BioCycle as the Guide to the Maximum Recycling, J G Press Incorporated, Pennsylvania. Bromley, D.
1995, Handbook in Environmental Economics. Blackwell Publishers, Massachusetts. Ferris, D. and Shanklin, et. al. 1994. “Solid Waste Management and Foodservice” Food Technology. March: 110-115. Lebensorger, Beigl & Salhofer 2008, “Modelling municipal in solid waste Generation” Waste Management 28(1): 200-214. Saunders. T. 1993, Bottom Line for Green is Black: Strategies of Creation of Environmentally Sound Business. Harper. San Francisco, California.Sample Essay of Custom-Writing