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The hydrologic cycle is a continuous sequence

The hydrologic cycle is a continuous sequence, which involves the change of states between liquids, vapour and ice. The water cycle basically involves three phases: (i) Evaporation, (ii) Condensation, and (iii) Precipitation. During the evaporation stage, as the sun heats up the water, energy is transferred from the surface of the earth to the atmosphere as the water evaporates into the air as vapour. The vapour then rises up in the sky and will condense into clouds. As cloud formations become saturated, it will fall back to the earth as precipitation or rainfall.

As rain falls to the earth, some of it are absorbed into the soil and becomes groundwater. Below the groundwater surface is the water table. Beneath the water table are interconnected openings and pore spaces, which are completely filled with water draining down from the surface. This layer is called the saturated zone. A ground water well is created by digging the ground to access water stored below the earth’s surface. Cone of depression, on the other hand, is the process of pumping water from wells or underground mines. 2. A simple food chain involves a link between plants and animals, and usually ends up with the decomposers.

For example, plants are consumed by herbivores, or those animals that only eat plants. In turn, these herbivores are hunted and preyed upon by the carnivores, or those animals that eat other animals. The decomposers will thereafter feed on the decaying matter. A geographer’s approach may be different from that of a biologist since the former has set his focus with respect to the terrain whereas the latter has set his focus on the interactions between plants and animals. Biome involves an interaction between plants and animals, as well as the soil.

Also known as the ecosystem, it is also associated with animal and plant communities. Zoogeographic region, on the other hand, is a biogeographic division based on the historic and evolutionary patterns of organisms. The floral biomasses of perennial species in the desert possess more diverse floral types that those in the tundra. However, the desert ecosystem appeared to produce similar diversity as that of the Midlatitude Grassland. The Boreal Forest had a denser productivity as compared to the other ecosystems. 3. I think soils in flat areas develop faster as compared to soil on sloped areas.

The reason behind this is that in sloped areas, the soil just slides off due to gravity. As compared to flat areas, the soil just stays there. Thus, the process is much faster as against soil development in sloped areas. The five factors of soil formation are: (i) parent material, (ii) climate, (iii) living organisms, (iv) topography, and (v) time. The nature of the parent material is determinative of the properties of the soil. It has an influence over the texture, composition and degree of stratification of the soil. The geologic evolution shaped the face of the earth.

Tectonic plate movements have caused an internal and external struggle that changed the surface of the earth. This process involves to plates colliding with each other. 4. According to Alfred Wegener, the continents were once formed from a single land mass that drifted apart. Subsequent theories sidelined Wegener’s theory due to the latter’s lack of scientific evidence. Later on, Arthur Holmes suggests that the continental drift was due to the convection currents with the mantle. When one tectonic plate collides with another along a plate boundary, it results in geological events like earthquakes or the creation of volcanoes and mountains.

The theory of plate tectonics is supported by evidence regarding magnetic anomalies and seafloor spreading. Seismic images, as well as the study of the deep ocean floor, produce geologic observations which affirmed the theory. 5. Scientists believe that the Pleistocene is over because and that we are already in the Holocene epoch because they have observed several climactic changes that had a major impact on the fauna and flora. Aside from the retreat of glacial ice, there are several indicators that this period of glaciation has ended.

For example, major extinction events have emerged. Certain species of horses and camels in North America have become extinct. Also, the climate has changed, as seen by the El Nino phenomenon. Accordingly, state bodies have pushed for the legislation for the protection of the environment, having in my mind the global warming event. Source: Soil Development http://agronomy. unl. edu/ffa/sol&wat. htm#soildevel The Pleistocene and Holocene Epochs by Gibbard, P. and van Kolfschoten, T. (2004) http://www. qpg. geog. cam. ac. uk/people/gibbard/GTS2004Quat. pdf

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