The Personal Computers
The Personal Computers at their advent were simple machines with less number of parts and limited capabilities. Less power was required to operate the computers and with this, computer heating was never a major problem in their usage. However with the development in microprocessor and solid state technologies there has been revolution in the ways in which people use computers in the today world. The computers today can be configured according to ones needs and many people add on components like graphics cards, Modems, USB devices etc.
can be fitted on computers just to suit the purpose that it is intended to perform. Motherboards today also come with an increased number of components, just to be able to provide the service needed to the computer user in the market. However with the increase in components a new problem of heating has surfaced in computers. With the increase of the number of components added to the personal computer, it has led to the increase of demand for power supply to the computers. This has led to the increase of the heating problem to the personal problem.
This is because, it is assumed that the added components consumes more energy thus generating large amount of heat to that in the long run, it affects the computer in such away that it can lead to the inefficient performance of the electronic devices or even damage it completely to render it non-functional to the user. It is to this heating problem of the computer that it was found wise to implement on the introduction of the personal computer cases that may help on the cooling of the computers when they overheat.
On undertaking the project on, the main drive was to create simulation in order to find a better solution over the existing PC Cases and prevent spreading of heat to other components. With this objective, one has to understand the principle of fluid dynamic and apply it to the PC Case problem. The project was also to design a model that could be able to convert humid air by applying Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), and finally, it was taken up for the purpose to provide new and better recommendations for the PC Case. 1. 1 PROBLEM STATEMENT
Although these components have increased the functionality of computers tremendously it has raised a serious problem of heating. With the increase in number of components the demand for power supply has increased. The components consume more energy and generate large amount heat. Electronic devices perform inefficiently or even get damaged as a result of excessive heat. Hence a new challenge to protect these components from getting damaged by proper cooling of heat has emerged. 2. 0 LITERATURE REVIEW Computers are one of the devices that have improved the lifestyle of people in the world.
It has been able to improve and made it easier on the people’s operation on the day to day duties. During its introduction, it was more of advantageous than disadvantageous to the people using them. The Personal Computers at their advent were simple machines with less number of parts and limited capabilities. Less power was required to operate the computers and with this, computer heating was never a major problem in their usage. With the increase of the demand on its usage in the world, people opted to add more and more components such as the CPU, RAM and the modification of the motherboard on their computers.
With this addition of the component in the computers, it has increased the demand of the energy from the computers that in the long run it has led to the overheating of the computers. This heating problem in the computers has damaged the computers and even rendered the electronic devices in it inefficient to the user. Though the components have increased in numbers the size of PCs has kept reducing. People today prefer smaller PCs for space constraints and aesthetics. In order to keep in line with the reducing sizes the Power supply and the cooling system should also go transformation in sizes.
One needs to design cooling systems with greater performances yet at a reduced scale. As the power supply and cooling are the components of PC case there is a need to renovate these cases to protect computer components from getting overheated and damaged. At the same time it should be scaled down and match the aesthetics of other parts such as monitors, keyboards etc which come in designer shapes today. Due to this problem, many researchers have tried to come up with ways in which can control the heating problem in the computers.
They have established different models of the PC Cases that can be used to control the amount of the temperature that accumulate in the computer causing the heating problem. Some of these kinds of the models are the AT Case and the ATX Case model (Cohen, Alger, & Boyd, 1987, pp 109). As much as the models have been used in the market, the problem has still persisted to be the worry of the computer users. Some of the cause of the heating problem in the computers has been known to be the accumulation of the temperatures that is generated as the components of the computer tries to operate.
This has been as to the fact that the computer manufacturers have not allowed enough space or quality fans in the PC Cases to be able to regulate the temperature in the computer (Baugher, & Varanelli, 1996, pp 155). Those of which has been tried to do so have been noted to cause air pollution in the environment. It is of this reason that the researcher found it essential to investigate and come up with abetter PC Case that will be able to solve the problem and as well be friendly to the environment.
On doing this, it has been noted that appropriate use of the Computational Fluid Dynamics together with the humid air and recycling of the environment friendly materials can help to produce a product that can help in the cooling effect of the computer with a positive effect on the global warming and the reduction of noise in the computer rooms. 2. 1 CAUSE OF COMPUTER HEATING The percentage of heat produced by an incorporated circuit, the main origin of heat accumulation in the modern personal computers is the purpose of its design, the knowledge used in its production and the frequency and voltage at which the computer function.
In function, the temperature amount of a personal computer’s components usually rises till the temperature gradient between the computer elements and its immediate attains the rate at which, heat is released to the environment is equivalent to the rate that is being created by the electronic components thus the temperature of the components arrive at equilibrium state (International Maritime Organisation, 2002, pp 144).
At this state, it is though out that, for reliable functioning of the computer, the equilibrium temperature has to be of adequately low to enable the composition of the computer’s circuits to endure. Other than that, it has also been though that, there are also other environmental factors that cause the heating problem in the computer. These factors include; dust- this is the accumulation of the dust around the computer acting as a thermal insulator and hindering the flow of air around the computer thus minimising the heat sink and the functioning of the fan.
The second minor cause of the heating problem in the computer is the poor airflow. This includes the turbulence due to resistance against hindering components or inappropriate direction of fans, can lessen the quantity of air flowing throughout a case and even generate restricted current of hot air in the case. The last cause is the poor heat transfer caused by the need or deprived application of thermal compounds. 2. 2 WAYS OF COOLING Computer cooling is the procedure of eradicating the extra heat from computer mechanisms.
Computer components are known to be generating high amount of heat during operation. The heat produced has to be released out of the system to allow fro good performance of the computer by keeping the components within safe operating temperatures (Ullmann, F. 2003, pp 80). In other to attain this goal, manufacturers have tried to make the use of heat sinks to amplify the surface area that drives away heat from the system; they use fans to hasten the replacement of air heated by the computer components for the cool fresh air from the environment around the computer.
In some cases, they tend to use some of the agents such as the Computational Fluid Dynamics that can be used to cool the system by throttling the components. 3. 0 METHODOLOGY In this section of paper, it will look at the ways in which the project was undertaken into practice. This will give us the overview of the practicability of the project. Here, it will be able to analyse if the project really satisfied its objectives as stated above in the background information section of the paper. 3. 1 Sample
For the project to be approved to be or help in the environment, sample computers were collected in the market. This was done by the use of the purposive system of sampling. It was as regard to the fact that they only needed the computers that had been modified by the addition of more components which demanded fro more energy from the computer system. 3. 2 Material The material needed for the project was; • Current PC Cases • Dynamic fluid • Humid air 3. 3 Procedures On coming up with the new model of the PC Case, the Case was developed in CFD.
It was simulated again with modification for the proposed air cooling. The comparison between the two simulations will helped in developing the cooling system and designing of the PC Cases. 3. 4 Design The research was experimental in nature in that the researcher was able to implement the producers in to practice by having the project done. With this, the materials needed will be collected into place and put into use to come up with the required product to solve the problem in place. 4. 0 RESULTS
The result obtained from the project was experimented in the nature. From the project that was carried out, it was noted that, the new model of the PC Case that was invented was able to accommodate the amount of energy used on the personal computers and this enabled it to cool the computer automatically whenever the heat rose up during its usage. The below table will be able to summarise the quality of the model in practice. Fig 1: Summary of the Result Obtained from the Project Quality Excellent Good Average Poor
Aspect on test Environment friendly in term of noise, global warming Effectiveness to cool the computer Reliability of the model to the computer usage Availability of the model 5. 0 DISCUSSION As much as the result of the project was that of nature, it will be appropriate if we discuss the finding in the theoretically point of view. From the given result of the project, it is clear that the new model for the PC Case will be more appropriate from the usage of the people in the schools as well as those for their personal usage.
With this, we can say that the model is friendly to the environment as on its functioning, it does not produce more noise as the previous PC Cases in use in various centres of computer. Other than that, the model is also friendly to the global warming as due to its usage of the friendly recycling material, it enables it to be able to reduce global warming in the environment. Other than that, the model is also natural, as the project was done under the natural experiment by the use of the CFD assistance to come up with it.
By the fact that the model was able to accommodate the amount of the energy needed to run the computer with all the added component in it, it is clear that the new model has more powers to cool off the heat generated by the computer and thus, being able to prevent the electronic devices in the compute from danger and even prolong the life span of the computer in general. With the new model of the PC Case, the model is reliable to the computer user as by the cause of any doubt of its reliability, it can as well be tested by the manufacturers in the country and be justified to be original to then nature.
As from the project, it was also clear that the mathematical model for the fluid dynamic of air could be constructed and solved fro various conditions and the outcome of it was able to be examined with that of computer simulations. CONCLUSION In finale, the project was successful, it reduces the effect of global warming in the environment, and it reduces the noise in the environment and thus creating non polluted environment in the use of the computers in the environment.
It is also concluded that, with the correct implementation of the fluid dynamics modification in the existing PC Cases, they are able to attain the ability to be able to cool heat efficiently and prevent components overheating. RECOMMENDATION The paper recommends the implementation of the model to the computer usage so as to reduce to air pollution in the environment and the effect that the current models are causing on the global warming.
It also recommends to the manufacturers of the computers to implement the new knowledge on the model so that they may be able to modify their PC case model in use so that they can be able to provide their customers with the appropriate product. REFERENCE Tech FAQ ‘Why is CPU temperature so important Retrieved 4th February 2009 from http://www. tech-faq. com/monitor-cpu-temperature. shtml Tech Digest ‘Environmentally Friendly PC Case Retrieved 4th February 2009 from http://www. techdigest. tv/2005/12/environmentally. html
PC World ‘Help Your PC bet the Heat Retrieved 4th February 2009 from http://www. pcworld. com/article/17175/help_your_pc_beat_the_heat. html PC Hardware ‘PC Cooling Why It Is Essential Air Cooling Explained with Case and CPU Fans Retrieved 4th February 2009 from http://www. pchardware. co. uk/cooling. php CHAM ‘Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics Retrieved 4th February 2009 from http://www. cham. co. uk/website/new/cfdintro. htm Baugher, D. & Varanelli, A. (1996) PC Case Business Cases and PC Software 2nd Ed pp 154-123 London McGraw Hill College DivSample Essay of Eduzaurus.com