This paper is all about the theory personality. Personality is described as the “essence of human being. It is defined as the consistent and enduring patterns of behavior which is unique in every individual. Heredity (biological) and environment (environmental) variables play a role in shaping and influencing the personality of different people. This suggests that studying the field of psychology must be dealt with individual case analysis. Personalities Introduction It is a common notion that different people are understood as having their distinct personalities.
Personality is indeed unique for every individual. But how is personality really defined and measured? In this paper, human personality would be defined and at the same time, described, as the focus of this research discussion. Further, consistent traits, qualities, and other personality models would be investigated if these factors of personality are measurable or not. In brief, the biological influences of psychology is the highlight of this paper as it gives emphasis to the explanation of how a personality develops and influences behavior among every human individual interacting in the social world.
Body Personality: As Defined and Measured Gordon Allport in is book Pattern and Growth in Personality, came up with his own definition and description of “personality” based on several definitions of the term which he has read and encountered. According to Allport, personality is the “dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine characteristic behavior and thought (Schultz & Schultz, p. 233).
” What Allport meant in pertaining to personality as a “dynamic organization” is that the human personality is ever-changing now and then and it is oriented towards attainment of growth which is continuously developing across the life span. Moreover, personality is defined as the individual’s overt expression of socio-emotional, cognitive, and biological functioning. In addition it is regarded as the “essence of human being (Hall & Lindzey, p. 9). ” Personality is the active psychological functioning mechanism of human performing to organize and execute cognitive processes across the lifespan.
It encloses and reflects human characteristics such as the following: competencies, intellect/reason, skills, moral codes, which is making up the total evaluation of a person’s attitude in the entire life span. Further, it is a constant, personal pattern of behavior of a person influencing one’s physical, cognitive, and social reaction and expression towards external factors encountered in the environment (Hall & Lindzey, 1957). On the other hand, as human personality was defined in several ways among person having different traits and qualities, it could be measured through personality tests.
These personality tests include Hathaway’s and Mc Kinley’s Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) – most widely used personality test to measure personality and mental state of a person to identify one’s psychological make-up; Next is Raymond Cattell’s Sixteen Personality Factors or 16 PF – a questionnaire used to measure the basic traits or characteristics of an individual’s personality; Costa’s and McCrae’s Revised NEO Personality Inventory or NEO PIR is psychological personality test reflecting the 5-factor personality model which measures an individual’s score on five personality traits such as Openness to Experience, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism and are considered as the common threads to personality models. Such individual and common/shared traits are thus consistent and enduring factors which influences the way people behave.
The three personality tests described above are just some of the many existing personality tests or inventories used in the United States to measure human personality. They have been developed in America in order to measure personality and its variables (citation). This last type of personality inventory would be very useful among evaluating and analyzing the differences of the society’s personality as observed n a multicultural society or community for instance (Hall & Lindzey, 1957). Biological/Hereditary and Environmental Influences in Personality Human personality is indeed the outcome of heredity and environmental factors interacting to shape the total personality make up of a person. Heredity accounts for the physical structure of a person, level of competence or intelligence, and temperance.
However, the environment plays the role of expanding, shaping, and limiting such external variables encountered by every individual in one’s environment. This reality shows that both heredity and environment are important variables in shaping aspects of the personality in the individual (Schultz & Schultz, 1997). The genes or biological make up or heredity of a person is culpable to distinctiveness and individuality of a person. Moreover, the environment contributes a major factor in developing and shaping personality traits and characteristics. This is to say that both biological and environmental variables influence the overall, total personality of a person. Furthermore, it is to be put into account that no two persons have the exact genetic makeup.
In addition, persons live in different kinds of environment with different culture, climate, and other distinct characteristics of the external variables. Therefore, this explains the differences of personality among two or more persons. Even a sibling or twins for instance, do not share exact and duplicated personality. The personality of person is unique in every individual due to difference in biological makeup, reaction to external stimulations and influence of the external environment (Hall & Lindzey, 1957). Conclusion Different people are understood as having their distinct personalities. Personality is indeed unique for every individual.
Personality is defined as the individual’s overt expression of socio-emotional, cognitive, and biological functioning. It is the essence of human being. Human personality could be measured through psychological inventories or tests such as MMPI, 16 PF, NEO- PIR, and others, which assesses and provides interpretations of the test takers scoring high or low on a specifics personality questionnaire. Individual and common/shared traits are thus consistent and enduring factors which influences the way people behave.
References Hall, C. S. , & Lindzey, G. (1957). Theories of personality. NY: John Wiley & Sons. Shultz, D. P. , & Schultz, S. E. (1997). Theories of personality. NY: Brooks Cole Company.Sample Essay of PapersOwl.com